Coins have been used as a form of currency across the world for almost three thousand years. Much like today, the earliest coins were formed from metals, with more precious metals reflecting higher monetary value. The most common shape of coin is a flat, rounded disc shape, which also tends to be small in size. Antique and rare coins can hold high value on the collectors' market, and some coins produced by Russia can be of particular interest to numismatists. The ruble - the official currency of Russia - is the second oldest national currency in the world; for eight centuries, it was used across Russian territories. Rare examples of ruble coins include the Constantine ruble, a silver coin with the portrait of the grand duke Constantine. Ruble coins supposedly depicting Ivan the Terrible - Grand Prince of all Russia in the 16th century - can be found on the collectors' market.
HVMC, a Monte Carlo auction house, will end the auction season in style with a series of exceptional sales comprising seven different categories and nearly 2,500 lots. Here are the highlights of the sale, from art and jewelry to fashion accessories and archaeological treasures.