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Max Ernst (1891-1976) Germany

Max Ernst was a German painter, sculptor and graphic artist who worked in France and the US. In Paris, he met Jean Arp, with whom he founded a Dadaist group in Cologne.
He had his first solo exhibition in Paris in 1921, which was deeply admired by other Dadaists. In conjunction with the publication of André Bruton’s First Manifesto of Surrealism, Ernst entered a new experimental phase in his artistic career. Shortly thereafter, he invented “frottage”, a technique that he used to produce seemingly random effects.

In the 1930s, Ernst’s visions intensified. He began combining objects, assembling them into imaginative, nightmarish improvisations. In the US, as a sculptor during the war years, he was inspired by the primitive magic of Native American culture. His later work approaches the non-figurative, with a suggestive power.

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