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A very rare vincennes white figure of a seated poodle circa 1752

(Chienne caniche), the female dog, its fur modeled in tight curls and its forelegs and tail partially clipped, seated on a rectangular tassled cushion with a chevron-patterned border. A biscuit model of this exact form is illustrated by Émile Bourgeois, Le Biscuit de Sèvres recueil de modèles de la Manufacture de Sèvres au XVIIIe siècle, pl. 4, no. 143, described as a Chienne caniche (female poodle) and dated to 1750. Mention is first made of dog figures in the Sèvres factory inventory for October 1752. The entries, which cite various petits chiens, dogues, and chiens barbets are listed by Tamara Préaud and Antoine d'Albis, La Porcelaine de Vincennes, p. 170, where the authors illustrate a dog of a different breed, naturalistically colored, in the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, and comment that it is impossible to know to which of the known models these references refer. A second (white) example of the Fitzwilliam model was sold at Christies, London, March 28, 1983, lot 23, where the note cited a third example in a Canadian private collection. A reversed version of the present figure, white with blue and ocher eyes, and seated on a pale blue washed rectangular mound base, was also included in the same sale in 1983, lot 22. Interestingly on its collar was the incised name 'Sophie', which the note suggested could be that of the dog or its owner. Correspondence relating to the present figure, in the possession of the current owner, mentions the existence of a third version of the model in the Lion Collection, Paris, the collar apparently inscribed 'Plote'. The Winifred Williams exhibition catalogue, op. cit., suggests that the present model might represent a pet belonging to Madame de Pompadour, perhaps one of the dogs 'Inès' and 'Mimi' which were engraved by Etienne Fessard, circa 1755-56, after a drawing by Christophe Huet and subsequently depicted in a painting by Jean-Jacques Bachelier, shown at the Salon of 1759 and recorded most recently at the Lelong sale in Paris, May 11, 1903, lot 196. This painting is "faithfully reproduced" on a Sèvres plaque mounted in a gold box in the Rothschild Collection at Waddesdon Manor, illustrated by Svend Eriksen, The James A. De Rothschild Collection at Waddesdon Manor, Sèvres Porcelain, p. 122-124, no. 42a. This shows two dogs of differing breeds, the one on the left closely resembling the present model, with long ears, curly fur, clipped legs and tail ending in a tuft. The 1903 catalogue description of the Bachelier painting identifed the two dogs, according to the Williams catalogue, as "a griffin and a spaniel" and this would seem to be supported by the coloring of the dogs. Therefore, unfortunately, the identification by Bourgeois of the present model as a poodle might appear to negate the link to these two particular dogs, particularly as there is also a figure of an Epaneule flamande (Spaniel) illustrated by Bourgeois, op. cit., pl. 4, no. 273, the model showing clear differences in the modeling of the fur and the face, to the present example. It is however, also quite possible that the breeds of dog have not necessarily been 'correctly' identified, either in the Sèvres records or in accounts of the painting and engravings. The resemblance between the present figure and the one on the left in the Bachelier painting is very close, and there is every reason to believe that in making such a large scale, and presumably expensive, figure that the Sèvres sculptor might have used a well-known dog, perhaps even one of those belonging to Madame de Pompadour, as model.

  • USAUSA
  • 2003-10-24
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An important george iii parcel-gilt chinese black lacquer-mounted

The Northumberland’s were amongst the greatest collectors and patrons of the 18th century. They commissioned work from a wide and varied body of leading artists, architects and craftsman which included such luminaries as Robert Adam, Canaletto, Capability Brown and Joshua Reynolds (who painted their portraits). Their central London home, Northumberland House, just off Trafalgar Square was a showcase for their possessions, many of which were acquired on European Grand Tours. Each of their homes was extensively re-worked by the couple and a reflection of their taste illustrating well their passion for all at the vanguard of contemporary thought and fashion. Alnwick Castle in Northumberland, through Robert Adams transformation of this ancient family seat, became a ‘picturesque’ Gothic Palace in the late 1770s. Adam re-worked the interiors of Syon, the Northumberlands great house in Middlesex, in a sublime exercise of geometry, color and light, the perfect backdrop for Antiquities and exquisite furniture, by many of the best designers of day, newly acquired by the Duke and Duchess. The vogue for furniture veneered with Chinese lacquer panels taken from screens depicting oriental landscapes and figures was a curious survival in the strict neo-classical interiors designed by Robert Adam and his contemporaries. Most of the known examples were created for bedrooms and ladies dressing rooms or closets, such as the two commodes supplied to Robert Child for the State Bedroom and Etruscan Dressing Room at Osterley, which are richly decorated with oriental scenes in gold on black ground, and ornamented with burnished gold carved ornament in the neo-classical taste. Until recently, the maker of these exceptional pieces was unknown, when the re-appearance of a similarly conceived upright example made for Mrs. Child which was identical with one supplied by Thomas Chippendale to Edwin Lascelles for the State Bedroom at Harewood House in 1773, confirmed the maker as Chippendale. As at Osterley, this room was designed to conform with the rest of the decoration. The form and decoration of the present clavichord would therefore not have been seen as strange in the neo-classical interiors at nearby Syon or at Northumberland House. Importantly the 1st Duke of Northumberland and the 1st Duchess of Northumberland appear separately in the names of subscribers to Chippendales Directory of Designs published in 1754.

  • USAUSA
  • 2015-10-17
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A large and impressive gilt bronze-mounted kingwood and tulipwood

The cylinder beneath three drawers, two with later Chubb locks one numbered 1741531 and the other 1741530, opening to walnut filing compartments and drawers and a gilt-tooled green leather lined writing slide, the side zephyr and flora holding four-light candle branches, the cylinder fronted by a trophy emblematic of literature, the frieze with three large drawers, the back centered by the mask of a water nymph flanked by trophies emblematic of Architecture and Science, raised on cabriole legs terminating in lion paw feet and headed by female masks to the four corners, each side fitted with a writing slide The design of the present magnificient bureau à cylindre, adorned by the figures of Apollo and Calliope as figural candelabra, was arguably inspired by Oeben and Riesener's cylinder desk, universally referred to as the Bureau du Roi, one of the most famous pieces of 18th century French furniture. The construction of this extraordinary piece was started in 1760 by Jean-François Oeben, finally delivered to the King in May 1769 after its completion by Oeben's successor, Jean-Henri Riesener. The original model desk, which took numerous craftsman and nine years of painstaking work to bring it to perfection, dominated Riesener's work during this period. The magnificent Bureau du Roi was originally in Louis XV's study at Versailles. Seemingly too much a reminder of the ancien régime, it was relegated to the office of Napoléon's assistant in the Tuileries in an inventory of 1807. It was moved to the grand salon at the Palais des Tuileries for a short time until transferred to Saint-Cloud by Empress Eugénie in 1855. In August 1870 it was at the Musée du Louvre before being finally returned to Versailles in 1957.

  • USAUSA
  • 2015-10-15
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A SPLENDID PAIR OF 'HISTORISMUS' LAPIS LAZULI TOWERS WITH ENAMELLED

Each of tiered hexagonal form, surmounted by a flower-decorated urn with caryatid and hippocamp handles, the upper section set with military figures in arched niches above further lapis lazuli-veneered tiers, one applied with crystal-covered biblical subjects such as the Flight to Egypt and Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden, enamelled in the round, another with oval openwork enamelled marine subjects, barleysugar columns supporting figures of the Virtues, all within elaborate mask and scroll borders, on mask and paw supports, maker's mark and Vienna post-1872 town marks Herman(n), son of Emanuel and Josefina Böhm was born in Bukesbon, Hungary in 1842/3. On 22 August 1865, in Pucho, Hungary, he married Therese (“Rosi”) Politzer, daughter of the goldsmith J. Leopold Politzer and his wife Grendel. Shortly after the marriage, the families moved to Vienna and went into business first as Politzer & Böhm, later as Hermann Böhm. Both Therese, their son Max and Therese’s brother Joseph Politzer worked at various dates with the firm which appears to have remained in existence until at least 1922. Hermann died in Vienna in 1928 and Max the following year. The firm is recorded as employing between 10 and 12 workmen and specialised in creating magnificent enamel and hardstone works of art, 'perfect reproductions of grand medieval pieces, rich of gems and enamel of many colours',  for export. Böhm's large works in lapis lazuli are less common: a similar group of three towers was recorded at Christie's sale, The19th Century Interior, 22 March 2001, lots 44/5 and a garniture combining a clock pavilion with two 5-light candelabra, said to have been a gift from Emperor Franz Josef to Tsar Alexander II of Russia (Meister Collection, Parke Bernet, New York,  31 March 1966, lot 24).

  • GBRUnited Kingdom
  • 2014-05-15
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Joseph knibb. an ebony dutch striking table clock with skeletonised

7½-inch latched dial signed along the lower edge Joseph Knibb Londini Fecit, winged cherub spandrels, silvered skeletonised chapter ring with every minute numbered, finely matted centre with date aperture and central rosette, the substantial fusee movement with ten latched knopped and ringed pillars, divided front plate, re-conversion to verge escapement, engraved outside count wheel cut for Dutch striking on two bells, the backplate signed as the dial and engraved with tulips and a winged hour-glass, the 'Phase 1' case with gilt-brass handle to the shallow-domed top, on block feet  Joseph Knibb, the most famous and inventive member of the celebrated Knibb clockmaking family was born circa 1640; he was apprenticed to his cousin Samuel in about 1655 and after serving seven years worked first at Oxford and then moved to London in 1670 where he was made Free of the Clockmakers’ Company. He must soon have built up a good reputation for himself as it is recorded that he supplied a turret clock for Windsor Castle in 1677 and payments were made to him in 1682 on behalf of King Charles II. No other maker produced such an intriguing variety of striking and repeating mechanisms, amonst which is Dutch striking as used on this clock. Commonly used on Dutch clocks but rarely by English makers, the hour is struck, as usual, on a bell but at the half-hour the preceding hour is struck on a smaller bell. Towards the end of the 17th century Joseph Knibb moved to Hanslop in Buckinghamshire. A few clocks with the Hanslop address are known but by the early years of the 18th century Knibb had virtually retired; he died in December 1711.

  • GBRUnited Kingdom
  • 2013-12-03
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An italian antique marble table top,  second half 16th/early 17thcentury

Of square form, in carrara marble centred by a square of marmo giuggiolato within a border of breccia quintillina, bianco e nero di Aquitania, alabastro antico within a further border of brocatello di spagna Comparative Literature: R. Gnoli, Marmora Romana, Rome, Edizioni dell'Elefante,1971 (II ed. 1988). L'Opera di Agostino del Riccio, Istoria delle pietre, e stata da me edita e commentata in Agostino del Riccio (curated by Raniero Gnoli and Attilia Sironi), Turin, Allemandi, 1996. La citazione dal Jestaz e stata tratta Bertrand Jestaz, Le decor mobilier, la sculpture moderne et les objets d'art du Palais Farnèse, Rome, Ecole Française, 1981, p. 399. This table top is inlaid with Antique marbles with the exception of  the central section which is made of  a large square of `marmo giuggiolato’. This rare marble comes from the Apuane Alps and started to be used from the 16thcentury onwards as mentioned by Agostino del Riccio (LXI), who said that balls and tables were made from it (illustrated 36). Slabs of this type of marble can be seen in other works in Florence, for example, in the Cappella Gaddi at Santa Maria Novella. It can also be found in Rome, together with other rare marbles, in the floor of a room in Palazzo Rondanini al Corso. On the present table top, the square is surrounded by a band in bianco e nero di Aquitania marble intercepted by ovals of breccia quintilina outlined in marmo bianco  and emphasised  by little inlays of rosso antico. At the angles of the borders are four cartouches of alabstro antico. The large external border is inlaid with brocatello di spagna  with a stylised Greek key motif in white marble. This Antique marble top with its simple design brings to mind other recorded marble tops from the Farnese collection (those at  Palazzo Farnese and generally of square form), was described expertly by Jestaz ,`It is there, the Roman type (of table top) of the 16th century, more simple but more rigorous than the style popularised in the 17th century by the Opificio delle pietre dure in Florence’. The presence on this Roman top of a type of marble, used especially in Florence, should not surprise us, as there was a continuous exchange of marbles between the two cities. Its sufficient to think, for example, of  the rare marble occhio di pernice, also originating from the Apuane Alps which is found in various Roman churches (amongst others in the  altar maggiore of San Lorenzo in Lucina) and erroneously considered by Faustino Corsi to be an antique marble. The same can be said for the breccia gialla e nera and for the bianco e nero di carrara and others aswell. This top, like other Farnesian tops, ends simply with a white marble border and was probably destined to be inset into a wooden frame. This marble top, in my opinion originates from a Roman workshop from the second half of the 16th century, or at the very latest the beginning of the 17th century. We would like to thank Raniero Gnoli, for the above note, dated February 2012, a copy of which in Italian is available from the department upon request. Finally it is worthwhile comparing this top with another Roman tavolo a commesso, circa 1560, in Palazzo Farnese, Rome, reproduced by Annamaria Giusti, Eternità e  nobiltà di materia, Florence, 2003, p. 171,  fig.2, reproduced here in fig .1. 

  • GBRUnited Kingdom
  • 2013-12-03
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A charles x ormolu and carved hardstone-mounted and pietra dura-inlaid

The hinged top centered by an ormolu finial and flanked by two oval panels with foliate and fruit bouquets of carved hardstones in gadrooned ormolu borders, each corner mounted with a griffin and connected by ormolu foliate swags, centered by a princely crown, the projecting cornice mounted with ormolu border, the sides with inset pietra dura panels of flowers and birds within ormolu borders, each canted corner mounted with a winged putto issuing from scrolling acanthus leaves, centered on the long sides with ormolu mounts of putti flanking a female mask and holding floral garlands, raised on a molded base on circular ormolu feet, on a later carved giltwood stand, second half 19th century, underside of casket with a label Prasdrak Pfeilg 44 (?) With its lavishly carved hardstone panels, eighteenth-century Florentine pietra dura plaques and elaborate ormolu mounts, this luxuriously decorated casket belongs to a group of particularly sumptuous boxes favored by the European elite in the first half of the nineteenth century. The origin of such pieces can be traced back to the extravagant creations of seventeenth-century master makers of Italy, Germany and Flanders who used superb stone-inlaid panels in their pieces ranging from smaller caskets to large cabinets on stands, such as lot 5 in this sale. The taste for these works waned in the first half of the 1700s but was revived by some of the most important furniture makers of the last quarter of the eighteenth century, such as Adam Weisweiler and Martin Carlin. Late eighteenth-century French makers preferred using Florentine Baroque pietra dura plaques and hardstone carvings from the Gobelins workshop; a custom that persisted throughout the second quarter of the nineteenth century. It was first in England during the years of the Regency and the reign of George IV that caskets and caskets on stands similar to the lot offered here appeared in the collections of the British aristocracy. Their manufacturers and retailers were the most influential tastemakers and craftsmen of the era, such as Robert Hume. These caskets were based on earlier, most often Italian, models such as the one acquired by George IV and currently in the Royal Collection (RCIN 11895). An excellent English example of a casket on stand based on Baroque prototypes was sold Sotheby’s New York, October 21-22, 1999, lot 456. In continental Europe, the 1820s and 30s saw the first signs of interest in historicism and the emerging curiosity in the Gothic, Renaissance and Baroque styles. In France, after the fall of Napoleon the restored Bourbon kings looked back at the Ancien Régime with great nostalgia and adapted some of its artistic achievements to their own taste. The use of carved hardstone panels and pietra dura plaques echoed not only the latter years of Louis XVI’s reign, but also the bygone eras of great European monarchs and princes. The casket offered here is the product of this stylistic and ideological shift and recalls the time and taste of the illustrious rulers of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. In addition to their decorative value, the Florentine pietra dura plaques on this casket pay homage to the Renaissance and Baroque in Florence and its incontestable contribution to the arts. The carved hardstone panels are in the manner of those produced at the Gobelins manufactory during the reign of Louis XIV; a French king with whom the post-Napoleonic Bourbon rulers, namely Louis XVIII and Charles X, wanted to show continuity and nexus. Thus, this casket is not only a luxurious object, but also an embodiment of the political aspirations and principals of the Restauration. As with many other such boxes, the present example was most likely fitted as a jewelry coffer or served as a chest containing pieces of an amateur’s collection. It is also possible that it served as a diplomatic gift as such pieces were occasionally presented by visiting ambassadors well into the late nineteenth century. This casket is decorated with two European princely crowns in ormolu indicating that it cannot be ruled out that this lot was a princely commission or intended as an ambassadorial gift. For a discussion on Florentine pietra dura panels, please see note to lot 5.

  • USAUSA
  • 2014-12-11
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An important pair of george ii giltwood pier mirrors attributed to

Each cartouche pierced crest surmounted by a floral garland above a pair of C-scrolls centering pendant bellflowers, the shoulders with fully realized carved chinoiserie heads, each with feathered hat, the plate divided by a floral garland, the inner frame surrounded by acanthus-leaf-carved C-scrolls, the outer sides hung with floral sprays and entwined garlands, the apron centering a cartouche divided by further garland amidst Rococo scrolls. Matthias Lock's designs from the period were the first in the full Rococo manner of importance and originality to be published in England. With his collaborator, H. Copland, Lock 'took up the [Rococo] style with extraordinary aptitude and handled it with the greatest facility and freedom.' He had found a vehicle for his great fluency and very English love of naturalistic ornament. Not only a designer, but a master carver as well, Lock worked with Thomas Chippendale in the middle years of the 18th century and it is clear that the two craftsmen were equally accomplished masters of the Rococo idiom in the branch of decorative woodcarving. Although the fashion for Chinoiserie was not new, the Rococo impulses relaxed the previously formal conventions which had restricted the application of such designs to surface decoration (usually lacquered or japanned pieces). Familiar Chinese features such as pagoda crestings, lattice-work or frets were not incorporated as elements of structural design until around 1750. Hence, these mirrors with their pair of heads in the Chinese taste are important as early examples of a style soon to be popularized by design books in the ensuing period. A drawing held by the Victoria & Albert Museum by Matthias Lock, and from about 1760, illustrates a strikingly similar mirror. The refinement of design and the exquisite carving of the heads indicate that Lock, the preeminent wood carver of the period, may well have been responsible for their execution. A similar pair of giltwood mirrors attributed to Matthias Lock were sold by Sotheby's London, Lot 87, November 18, 1993, from the Moller collection. A second similar pair attributed to Lock were sold by Christie's New York, lot 114 May 17, 2012 for $464,500. Hampden House has a long history, the Hampdens having first begun building in the 1350s ultimately adding and ‘improving’ the house through the 1760s.  Interestingly the house was never fully demolished, but continually updated over the course of four centuries.  The family sent many of their sons to Oxford to be educated, John Hampden VI having attended Magdalen College 1609-12 who then became the famous Parliamentarian during the civil wars.  Another Hampden: Robert (who may have commissioned these mirrors) attended Queens College in the 1720s and became a Fellow of All Souls College where he may have met Hawksmoor who was rebuilding the large Gothic North Quadrangle.  Richard Hampden, the great grandson of John VI began major building works in the 1720s which were then continued by his brother John VIII until his death in 1754 where upon the aforementioned Robert inherited the title and estate and completed the works.  Robert was the ambassador to The Hague during this period and was made 1st Viscount Hampden in 1776.   The house is interesting in that the exterior is a mid-18th century historicist view of mediaeval and gothic architecture predating Horace Walpole’s gothic Strawberry Hill by twenty years.  Many of the windows have pointed and ogee arches and the walls have crenellations whilst the interior decoration is a mixture of classical and ‘Jacobean’ styles.  The London architect and builder Edward Shephard (best known for Shepherd Market Mayfair) was paid for supervising the building works from 1743-5 and was probably designed the richly classical detail of the fireplaces and extraordinary plasterwork.

  • USAUSA
  • 2014-10-18
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Maison krieger fl. 1826-1900 "architecture, sculpture, and renommées"

Each signed G.DELOYE The present four allegorical figures were part of the Maison Krieger's imperial stairway at the 1889 Paris world's fair. The double stairway (escalier à double devellopement) would lead the visitors to the firm's exhibition stand on the first flight. Designed by the architect Alexandre Sandier (1843-1916), the staircase was made of finely carved oak elements adorned by the present female figures, sculpted by Gustave Deloye (1848-1899), en ronde bosse from mahogany. This tour de force of sculpture and achitecture won the firm the highest praise from the jury as well as one of the highest prize of the exhibition, "Le Grand Prix". Both marchands-merciers and manufacturers of furniture with large mechanized workshops, Antoine Krieger and his brother Nicolas founded Maison Krieger in 1826 at 17, Rue Saint-Nicolas, Paris.  In 1850 the firm  became Antoine Krieger et Cie.  When Antoine Krieger died in 1856, his son-in-law took over the company and changed the name to Maison Racault et Cie, subsequently H. Racault et Cie; Colin Damon et Cie in 1870, Damon, Namur et Cie in 1875, Damon et Colin in 1892 and finally Cosse-Racault et Cie.  One of the largest mechanized workshops of furniture in Paris, the firm was located at 74, Rue Du Faubourg-Saint-Antoine.  Numerous furniture styles were displayed and created by Maison Krieger, who produced and exhibited copies as well as unique creations of eighteenth-century style designs alongside stylized interpretations of the Louis XV and Louis XVI styles.  They were exhibitors at the major exhibitions of the nineteenth century up to the 1900 Exposition Universelle in Paris.

  • USAUSA
  • 2014-06-06
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An extensive assembled Meissen ornithological dinner service

An extensive assembled Meissen ornithological dinner service 1750-1790, VARIOUS BLUE CROSSED SWORDS MARKS Modelled with Neu-Ozier borders outlined in gilt, painted with various specimen birds upon vignettes and butterflies, beetles and ladybirds, the tureens with scrolled cauliflower and asparagus handles, the covers applied with scattered flowers, comprising: two large two-handled oval tureens and covers, the covers surmounted by a finial modelled as a seated boy eating a fruit flanked by a fruit-filled basket, the other with a girl, 34 cm. wide, four smaller two-handled oval tureens and covers, two covers surmounted by a finial modelled as a recumbent boy, two covers with a seated girl holding one hand to her breast (including one Punktzeit), 28 cm. wide, three pairs of two-handled deep serving chargers with rocaille handles (including one Punktzeit 37.5 cm. wide) 44 and 37.5 and 33.5 cm. wide, a pair of very large Marcolini oval serving chargers, 50.6 cm. wide, four oval serving chargers (including two Marcolini), 44 cm. wide, four small oval serving chargers, 35.5 cm. wide, a pair of small oval serving dishes, 23.2 cm. wide, six large circular serving chargers (including two Punktzeit and three Marcolini), 38 cm. diam., eight large circular serving chargers (including four Marcolini), 34 cm. diam., eleven circular dishes (including four Marcolini), 30 cm. diam., six shallow bowls, (including one Punktzeit and two Marcolini), 25 cm. diam., four small shallow bowls, 21.5 cm. diam., twelve plates (including two Punktzeit and four Marcolini), 26 cm. diam., eight Punktzeit plates with gilt scroll rim, 25.5 cm. diam., seventy-six plates (including twenty-eight Punktzeit and eight Marcolini), 24 cm. diam., thirty deep plates (including five Punktzeit), 23 cm. diam. (rim chips, small damages, some wear to gilding, a detailed condition report is available on request) (191)

  • NLDNetherlands
  • 2007-11-06
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Attributed to Corneille de la Haye, called Corneille de Lyon The Hague

Attributed to Corneille de la Haye, called Corneille de Lyon The Hague c.1500-1510 - Lyon 1575 portrait of francois de goulaines, seigneur de martigne-brittard oil on panel 21 by 15.2 cm.; 8 1/4 by 6 in. Jean-Baptiste Colbert (1619-83), the earliest recorded owner of this portrait, was one of the outstanding political figures in France in the 17th century. After the death of his mentor, Cardinal Mazarin, in 1661, he became successively Controller-General, Minister of the Marine, Commerce, the Colonies and the King's Palace. Colbert was also one of the pre-eminent cultural figures of his day, a member of the French Academy, and the founder of the Academies of Sciences (now the Institut de France), Architecture, Music and the French Academy in Rome. His library, one of the greatest collections of the day, was later sold by his great nephew Charles Colbert in 1728, but the manner and date of the dispersal of those paintings not already donated to the Louvre remains unclear. The subsequent owner, George Tomline (d.1889), had also built up a notable collection at Orwell Park, including Murillo's famous Christ healing the paralytic at the Pool of Bethseda, sold like this picture in the Pretyman sale in 1933 and now in the National Gallery in London. In the absence of other documented likenesses, the identity of the sitter as Francois de Goulaine must remain unconfirmed. His wife, Gabrielle de Rochechouart, whom he married in 1547, was also painted by Corneille de Lyon, and the portrait is now at Chantilly (see Dubois de Groer under Literature, pp. 215-6, no. 29), one of a number of portraits formerly in the collection of the Colbert de Torcy family (for example, idem., pp.123, no. 126A, 218 no. 132A, or 219 no. 133). The pose of Chantilly portrait, however, echoes that in the present work, and the two cannot therefore be considered as pendants. Provenance: Jean-Baptiste Colbert, Marquis de Seignelay (1619-1683), his wax seal affixed to the reverse; Thence by descent to his second son Jacques-Nicolas Colbert, Archbishop of Rouen; Charles Elinore Colbert, his nephew; George Tomline, Orwell Park, Ipswich, Suffolk; By descent to his cousin the Rt. Hon. Captain E.G. Pretyman, Orwell Park, Suffolk; George Pretyman, Orwell Park, Suffolk, his sale et al, London Christie's, 28 July 1933, lot 19, £470. 10s. to F. Sabin; Colonel N.R. Colville, Penheale Manor, Launceston (according to the Partridge invoice below); With Frank Partridge and Sons, Ltd., London, from whom acquired July 1942, for £1250, as by Corneille de Lyon. Exhibited: London, Royal Academy, Works by the Old Masters, 1908, no. 8, as Flemish School. Literature: Possibly Dr. G. Waagen, Treasures of Art in Great Britain, London 1854, vol. III, p. 443, (as by Sir Anthony Mor.); Probably A. Dubois de Groer, Corneille de la Haye, dit Corneille de Lyon, Paris 1997, p. 168, no. 59, as sitter unknown. Quantity: 1

  • GBRUnited Kingdom
  • 2000-11-22
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A gilt-bronze and patinated-bronze, mahogany and sèvres porcelain-mounted

The oval Sèvres porcelain plaque painted with a basket filled with flowers, inset in a frieze decorated with palm fronds, on an identically decoraed central stem flanked by four ancillary supports in the form of palm trunks each supported by a recumbent griffin, on an oval mahogany base Hans Ottomeyer/ Peter Pröschel, Vergoldete Bronzen, Vol I, Munich, 1986, p.330, figs. 5.2.7, 5.5.2 and 5.5.4. Jean-Pierre Samoyault, Mobilier Français Consulat et Empire, Paris, 2009, p.117, fig. 199. Denise Ledoux-Lebard, Le Grand Trianon , Meubles et Objets d'Art, Vol. I, Paris, 1975, pp.147-148. Gérad Hubert and Nicole Hubert, Musée national des Château de Malmaison et de Bois Préau, Paris, 1986, p. 46. Geoffrey de Bellaigue, French Porcelain in The Collection of her Majesty The Queen, 2009, cat. no. 287. This exquisite and jewel-like guéridon table is extremely rare because Sèvres porcelain is usually associated with Louis XV and Louis XVI furniture and it is only very seldom found with Empire furnishings. The base: Based on a very similar example, the present table can be attributed to a collaboration between the celebrated ébéniste Adam Weisweiler and the renowned fondeur-ciseleur Pierre-Philippe Thomire, possibly under the direction of the marchand-mercier Martin Eloi Lignereux. The present table relates strikingly to a table firmly attributed to Weisweiler and Thomire which was supplied in 1802 by Lignereux to the Palace of Saint-Cloud and is now in the Victoria & Albert Museum in London, it is illustrated by Samoyault, op. cit., p. 117, fig. 199 and reproduced here in fig. 1. It is very likely that Weisweiler, famous for his Sèvres inset Louis XVI pieces, made the centre table to the order of and after designs by Lignereux who would also have supplied the porcelain plaque. The attribution to Thomire is not only based on the quality of  the fine gilt bronze but also the fact that he was one of the main suppliers to Weisweiler, he was closely associated with Lignereux and collaborated with both of them. Identical lions with the distinctive inwards scrolling, acanthus leaf issuing tails can be found on candelabra and clocks by Thomire (see Ottomeyer, Pröschel, op. cit., p. 330, fig. 5.2.7, p. 342, fig. 5.5.2 and 5.5.4.) It is also worth mentioning the design for a related guéridon by Charles Percier (1764-1838), reproduced here in fig. 2. Based on this design Jacob-Desmalter executed in circa 1805 a centre table for the  apartments in the Elysée Palace of Prince and Princess Murat. It is now in the Grand Trianon at Versailles and illustrated by Ledoux-Lebard, op. cit., pp. 147-148. Another version of this model was supplied to Malmaison, it is illustrated by Hubert et. al., op.cit., p. 46. Adam Weisweiler (1744-1820) Like many other important ébénistes of the 1700s, Adam Weisweiler was German-born. Although scholars know nothing about his apprenticeship and early training, church records show that he was established in Paris in 1777, the year he was married. He became a maître-ébéniste in 1778, set up his workshop on the rue du Faubourg Saint-Antoine, and worked mainly for the marchands-merciers. These middlemen, such as Martin Eloi Lignereux, would then sell Weisweiler's works to members of the French court, including Queen Marie-Antoinette, the king of Naples, and England's Prince Regent (later George IV). Weisweiler produced Neoclassical-style furniture using mainly plain veneers instead of pictorial marquetry. He also frequently made furniture set with lacquer or pietre dure panels or Sèvres porcelain plaques, to obtain distinctive effects. Pierre-Philippe Thomire (1751-1843) For further information on live and oeuvre of Thomire see footnote to lot 29. Martin Eloi Lignereux (c. 1750-1809) and the Marchand-merciers The marchand-merciers in Paris were hugely influential in determining taste, fashion, design and innovations in decoration during the latter part of the reign of Louis XVI and into the early 19th century. The hyphenated term is used to indicate their dual role as both merchants of objets d'art and as designers and interior decorators. They were members of the Parisian Mercers' Guild, but were not constrained by the strict regulations that were applied to craftsmen, as they did not have their own workshops. The marchand-merciers were mostly established in the rue St. Honoré, where they dealt in objects of art and furniture both imported from aboard and acquired from local craftsmen; they acted as intermediaries between the makers and the clients - commissioning pieces directly for the former and advising the latter. It was not unusual for a marchand-mercier to request that a piece of furniture could be adapted to please the taste of a certain client. These men were inextricably linked with the evolution of Parisian furniture - initiating and influencing fashions through their control over craftsmen and filling a fundamental role in the formation of many of the greatest collections of the period. Martin-Eloi Lignereux was born in Cuvilly in the Valois. He married Anne-Henriette Demilliville and had one daughter, Adélaide-Anne, who married Franois-Honoré Jacob-Desmalter on 14 March 1798. During the 1780s Lignereux became a partner in the firm of the celebrated  marchand-mercier Dominique Daguerre in the rue St. Honoré, which he took over completely in 1793. In 1799 he established further premises in the rue Christine, before settling at 41 rue Taitbout from 1803, where he also managed the dépôt des porcelaines nationales de Sèvres. He specialised in the production of precious pieces produced in small quantities but of the highest quality. The Sèvres porcelain top: The Sèvres porcelain plaque was painted around 1770-1775, in the style formerly attributed to Mlle Xhrouet but now largely largely reattributed to Jacques-François Micaud. The style is typical of his informal arrangement with many of the flowers turning outwards. The treatment of heavy strong-coloured flowers to the right of the composition, the blueish hue in the leaves, the use of the trailing convolvulus below the basket and the actual choice of flowers are all features common to his work. Other examples may be seen on a circular plaque inset in a black laquer commode by Weisweiler at Windsor Castle, a plaque inset in a secrétaire by Carlin at Waddesdon Manor, and another on a secrétaire from the Kress Collection at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, reproduced here in fig. 3. The porcelain table top could have remained unused as part of the stock of marchand-mercier Lignereux, or it might have come from another, earlier piece of furniture.The top oak underframe shows signs of having been originally attached to a different support which would suggest that the top was in use on a Louis XVI table before being converted to its present use, circa 1805. Jacques-François Micaud (1732/35-1811): Micaud joined the Sèvres Porcelain Manufactory when he was twenty-two years old. He worked there for over forty years, eventually becoming one of their anciens peintres (senior painters)--a title conferring honour and distinction. On his arrival, the factory recorded his appearance: an oval face marked with small pox, brown eyes, and brown hair. The record also noted that "he had entered the factory with a promising ability to draw and witnesses had also said that he was a wise boy." Micaud specialized at first in painting rich fabrics and roses. Over time, he became one of Sèvres' most talented flower painters, decorating porcelain tea services and other objects with flower sprays, garlands, and patterned borders of foliage or ribbons. His initial wage of thirty livres rose to one hundred livres per month by 1774. Money-Coutts family, Barons Latymer: This elegant table was once part of the Collection of the Money-Coutts family, heirs to the ancient barony of Latymer and Coutts & Co, the exclusive private bank. The Latymer barony dated from 1431, when it was created for Sir George Nevill, a son of the first Earl of Westmorland. However, the fourth baron died without a male heir in 1577, and the title was in abeyance until 1912, when the Committee of Privileges of the House of Lords ruled, in the absence of other claimants, that it had passed through one of the fourth baron's daughters to Francis Burdett Thomas Money-Coutts (1852–1923). Although destined for the directors' room of Coutts & Co he was too interested in the arts to be a serious banker and became an important patron of the arts.

  • GBRUnited Kingdom
  • 2012-07-04
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Ceremonial Baptismal Vessel

Introduction The original function and commission of this exuberantly baroque vessel can be understood by a close examination of its form and iconography. Shells abound, forming the bulk of the lower bowl set above a twisting watery stem. A neat row of shells forms the rim of the vessel and shells again decorate the lid. Clearly this vessel was intended to hold water, for which a central container, probably of pietra dura or rock crystal, is now lost. The religious iconography on the vessel leaves no doubt that the contents of the vessel were connected with the rite of Baptism. The Agnus Dei holding the flag sits on a rocky mound on the lid above the shell motifs and, even more explicitly, there is on one end a relief of St John baptizing Christ flanked by two angels, below the  dove representing the Holy Spirit with two seraphs, and above the bearded head of a river god. On the opposite end of the vessel is the crown of the Holy Roman Empire united with the arms of the Habsburgs of Austria Patron and Purpose The Habsburg arms were used in this form until 1740 and were later modified after the wedding between Maria Theresia of Austria, daughter of Charles VI, and Francis Stephen of Lorraine. The arms can therefore be securely identified as those of Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor (1685-1740). After the 1714 Treaty of Rastadt, Charles VI ruled over the former Spanish states of Italy, except Sicily which was part of the kingdom of Vittorio Amedeo II of Savoy.  If the stylistic origin of this vessel between Rome and Turin is accepted it seems possible either Charles VI commissioned this himself or, more plausibly, that Vittorio Amedeo II of Savoy, loyal ally of the Habsburgs, commissioned it as a gift. The latter hypothesis is supported by the stylistic affinities, discussed fully below, with designs by Vittorio Amedeo II's court architect Filippo Juvarra who worked closely with his brother, the silversmith, Francesco Natale Juvarra. In 1711, Charles VI, succeeded his brother as Holy Roman Emperor, but fearing his lack of male successor, modified the rules of inheritance in 1713 with the Pragmatic Sanction.  This allowed for the succession of the eldest daughter to the throne, a change accepted by many European rulers, including Vittorio Amedeo II.  After eight years of marriage, Charles VI's wife, Cristina of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, gave birth to Leopold Joseph in 1716.  This long awaited male heir sadly died in infancy in the following November, without receiving the Solemn Baptism, which used to be celebrated some months after the rite of the Essential Baptism, celebrated immediately after the birth. It is possible that the commission of this ceremonial sacramental vessel was intended for the Solemn Baptism of Leopold Joseph, or that  of Maria Theresia, born in 1717, who would eventually succeed to the throne. Style and Attribution The Agnus Dei, together with the shell motif, and relief of the Baptism could have taken their  iconographic inspiration from the famous gilt bronze font in the Baptismal Chapel of Saint Peter's in Rome, executed between 1695 and 1697 by the papal bronze-founder Giovanni Giardini, based on designs by Carlo Fontana. Further evidence of the possible Roman origin of this vessel around 1716 is suggested by the striking stylistic and formal similarities with the project for a vase by Filippo Juvarra drawn in pen and ink about 1715 (fig. 1) and by the identical style  in which the eagle is drawn in some later projects by the same artist. Filippo di Pietro Juvarra (1676-1736), member of a famous family of silversmiths from Messina, was himself a silversmith before starting his career as an architect, working for ten years (1704-1714) under Carlo Fontana in Rome, and in the service of Cardinal Pietro Ottoboni. In 1714 Filippo Juvarra was appointed Royal Architect in Messina by Vittorio Amedeo II of Savoy, then king of Sicily,  who  in the same year called him to Turin. Thanks to a series of documents we know that Filippo Juvarra  spent periods in Rome from 1714 to 1716, where he was engaged in the execution of models for the new Vatican Sacristy (never built) commissioned by Pope Clemente XI Albani. Francesco Natale Juvarra (1673-1759), famous silversmith and elder brother of Filippo, moved to Rome in 1713 and worked with Filippo, even after the latter moved  to Turin.  Leone Pascoli stated that even "when his brother was away Francesco Natale kept very close contacts with him, receiving a number of commisssions from him for decorative objects". The many projects for vases and furnishings, conceived from 1715 onwards for the king of Sardinia, and today in the Museo Civico of Turin, show the creative fantasy of Filippo who, even after his appointment to Royal Architect, enjoyed designing ornaments and decorations, often supplying ideas  which his brother Francesco Natale would work up and execute in silver. This ceremonial vessel displays the ornamental richness and highly refined taste typical of the silver pieces made in the Sicilian workshop of the Juvarras, The hypothesis that it could be the result of a later collaboration between them is confirmed by comparison with a number of pieces securely attributed to them. The  putto that forms the handle shows strong stylistic similarities with those which decorate the arms of the silver chandelier (Messina, Museo Regionale) assigned to the activity of the young Filippo, around 1705, as well as with the handles of the monstrance  in the church of Saint George in Modica and with the monstrance base in Saint Agnese in Rome, both documented works by Francesco Natale. In these works, and in his plaque of the Immaculate Conception in the J. Paul Getty Museum in Los Angeles (circa 1730-1740 ), the decoration incorporates shells and swags, characteristic motives of Francesco Natale's  decorative repertoire. RELATED ITERATURE L. Masini, La vita e l'arte di Filippo Juvarra, in "Atti della società piemontese di Archeologia e Belle Arti", Turin 1920; A. Bargoni, in Mostra del barocco piemontese,exhibition catalogue, Turin 1963, III, tav. 67, n. 219; G. Musolino, L'ostensorio della chiesa di San Giorgio a Modica e l'attività "eccellentissima" di Francesco Lo Judice e Francesco Natale Juvarra. Proposte e ipotesi e G. Molonia, La famiglia degli argentieri Juvarra nei documenti archivistici messinesi, both in Il tesoro dell'Isola. Capolavori sicilani in argento e corallo dal XV al XVIII secolo, exhibition catalogue in two volumes edited by S. Rizzo, Palermo 2008, I, pp. 191-204, pp. 1115-1122 We are grateful to Dottssa Maria Cecilia Fabbri for her cataloguing on this lot and to Dr Jennifer Montagu for her advice.

  • GBRUnited Kingdom
  • 2012-07-04
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A gilt-bronze mounted black chinoiserie lacquer commode stamped g.

With a shaped Brêche d'Alep marble top above a frieze drawer mounted with gilt bronze Vitruvian scrolls above a further drawer, both drawers sans traverse depicting Chinese figural scenes, landscapes, animals and plants, the panelled sides decorated similarly, on cabriole legs terminating in lion paw feet Comparative Literature Kjellberg, Pierre, Le Mobilier français du XVIIIe Siècle, Dictionnaire des ebenistes et des menuisiers, Paris 2002, p. 296-299, for a commode by Dester of same shape and with nearly identical mounts. The particular beauty of this elegant and rare commode is based on the vivid contrast between the dark lacquer panels and the bright gilt bronze mounts. Commodes with chinoiserie lacquer by Dester are rare as he mostly produced pieces in marquetry. However, in around 1930 Comte Francois de Salverte inventoried a comparable commode with chinoiserie lacquer in the collection of Count Williamson in Château Fontaine-Henry (Calvados). There is also a small Louis XV chinoiserie lacquer commode by Dester which was sold in Paris, hôtel Drouot, étude Renaud-le Roux, 30-31 March 1987, lot 203 for FF260.000 and is illustrated by Kjellberg, op.cit., p.259. Godefroy Dester, maître in 1774. Established in the rue du Faubourg-Sainte-Antoine, Godefroy Dester's (1768-1805) goût Grecque style was clearly inspired by the oeuvres of Adam Weisweiler and Guillaume Beneman. He was evidently well regarded, as he was chosen as the ébéniste for a magnificent pair of porcelain-mounted commodes designed by the architect François-Joseph Bélanger and supplied to the Comte d'Artois.

  • GBRUnited Kingdom
  • 2012-07-03
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An italian engraved ivory inlaid rosewood, ebony and marquetry commode

Of gentle bowed form, the top inlaid with intersecting scrolls and stylised ogee motifs above eight drawers each centered by a panel depicting the legend of Romulus and Remus flanked by sixteen portraits of the ancient kings of Naples within strapwork, the drawers and stiles with pilasters decorated with military trophies above two addorsed telamones, on the left side: the Maiestas Fortidunis represented by a feminine figure with an eagle on her head, armed with a sword and a sceptre, overcoming the Tirannis, a soldier in armour with a fractured sword, on the right side: the Religio Christi overlooked by the Holy Spirit are seen defeating Idolatry with the cross, on `rapa' shaped feet Comparative Literature: R. Antonetto, Il mobile piemontese nel Settecento, Turin, 2010, Vol. I, pp. 38-55. Rosa D'Amico, Catalogo Generale della Raccolta di Stampe Antiche della Pinacoteca Nazionale di Bologna Gabinetto delle Stampe, Bologna, 1980. The following is an extract translated from the footnote written by Roberto Antonetto, February 2012, and the detailed note in Italian is available from the department upon request: The attribution of this commode, which is a very important piece both historically and artistically, is based upon the characteristics of the piece itself. It is attributed to a workshop based in Turin at the beginning of the 18th century, almost certainly the Galbiati workshop. Galbiati was a cabinetmaker originally from Lombardy, who brought the technique of ivory inlay, typical of his place of birth, to Turin. The character of Lombardy is indeed clearly visible in the commode. We can recognize this commode as a work by Galbiati by comparison with other works already attributed to him. Recently this author has listed the furniture pieces by Galbiati, and another very similar commode, which is signed by Galbiati, have confirmed this attribution. By comparing the top of this commode, with the one signed “Galbiati fecit” (a wonderful “mazzarina” from a private collection), see Antoneto, op. cit., p. 42, no. 1, reproduced here in fig. 1, the two pieces share the same design of curves and volutes, but the signed “mazzarina” is adorned with ivory elements. The same volutes are present upon at least five other desks attributed to Galbiati in private collections. Another singular characteristic of Galbiati is the tiny ivory ring or band linking the volutes carved with either foliage motifs, a small butterfly or a small carved rectangle. Furthermore, Galbiati usually includes in his commodes thin horizontal elements addorned with ivory rectangles and ellipses situated between the drawers. These elements are also present upon this commode. This commode presents a unique feature: the front of the commode depicts the history of the kings of Naples between 1130 and the end of the 14th century. On each of the eight drawers there are two ivory medallions carved with the portraits of the kings, their names and the chronology of their reigns. Beside the medallions, there are war panoplies. The rectangular panels, with concave corners, between the medals, represent scenes from the history of ancient Rome in a very pure classical style and thus probably executed by a different artist. Usually the cabinet-makers from Turin, such as Piffetti, used ancient history as a source of iconographical inspiration, but it is unusual that the duration of the reigns depicted by Galbiati is different from the duration historically documented. Furthermore, this list of the kings is missing the last three monarchs. Probably, the commode was designed to belong to a pair. There are many reasons for the choice of representing the kings of Naples upon a commode made in Turin: the origin of the client who commissioned the work or the possibility of a wedding gift.There is also a link between the symbolic images represented on the sides and the series of the kings: the strength of the sword and the majesty of the religion are regal instruments used throughout history. The 16th century style ivory panels representing episodes from Roman history are based on the illustrated text “Storie di Romolo e Remo” by Giovanni Battista Fontana (Verona 1541-Innsbruck 1587): this is a collection of twenty-seven etchings dating between 1573 and 1575. The panels illustrated by Fontana measure about 127x22 mm. The engraver of the panels transferred twelve etchings on ivory at 1:1 scale, sometimes just transposing the etching, sometimes breaking it down and creating a new combination, so typical of engravers. The panels on the top left drawer comes from the etchings n. 1 and n. 2 from Fontana’s collection. The panel represents Amulius sacrificing his defeated brother’s daughter to the goddess Vesta, whilst in the background we can see Romulus and Remus nursed by the Wolf-Goddess and the twins abandoned by the River Tiber. The background illustrations on the commode are rearranged compared to the originals in Fontana’s collection. The panel on the second drawer on the left combines Fontana’s etchings n. 2 and n. 4, which represent Romulus and Remus hunting and the prisoner Remus brought before Amulius.The panel on the third drawer on the left of the commode represents the left side of Fontana's etching n. 5. It illustrates Romulus freeing Remus and killing Amulius. The right side of the panel represents only loosely the illustration of Fontana's etching n. 6, even though it is marked as number 6.The fourth drawer on the left is a composition of etchings n. 7 and n. 8 of Fontana's collection. N. 8 represents Romulus killing Remus. N.7 represents the two brothers consulting an oracle. The panel on the top right hand drawer manipulates two etchings from Fontana's collection: n. 11 and n.12. From etching n.11, which represents Romulus founding the Senate, the engraver does not illustrate the consensus of the senators but adds the standing figure of a man reading a book. From etching n.12, representing the Rape of the Sabine women, the engraver illustrates on the ivory panel only the central portion of Fontana's etching.The panel on the second right hand drawer represents etching n.13 of Fontana's collection: King Acrones attacks Romulus and is defeated. On the third right hand drawer is represented etching n.17 of Fontana's collection (illustrating the peace with the Sabines) but this panel does not represent n.16, as it is marked in the ivory. Furthermore, the right side of the panel that is marked by the number 17 does not correspond to etching n.17 of Fontana's collection. In the panel of the last drawer on the right hand column are combined two etching's from Fontana's collection: n.19 and n. 20 (and not n.18 and n.19 as indicated by the ivory engraver). The first print illustrates the Sabine king corrupting Tarpeia to conquer the stronghold represented in the background (the stronghold is barely visible on the commode). The second print represents the punishment of Tarpeia, trampled on by the soldiers to whom she opened the doors of the city. The connection between these engravings with the portraits of the Neapolitan kings is clear: the aim is to enoble the first kings, founders of an important and proud kingdom, comparing them to the foundation of the most powerful empire of the ancient world, Rome "cui totus postea orbis terrarum parere coactus est" (to which the whole world was subject), as described by Fontana in his introduction to the collection of prints. Furthermore, the symbols on the commodes sides, representing the sword and religion, emphasize this connection. Nevertheless, it is unlikely that the ivory engravings are part of the original design of the commode: their presence "fills" the front of the commode more than usual. Usually the richest decorations are concentrated predominantely on the front of the commode which naturally has the most immediate visual impact: there is a strong contrast between the splendid simplicity of the surface of the top, one of the most pure and beautiful examples known to us, and the spectacularly crowded drawers. In addition to the conclusions based on the commode's style, there are additional technical considerations: the ivory panels vertical edge break a decorative element, probably a leaf-motif, that recalls the cusps on the panel's horizontal edges. If these elements were not cut, they would have no reason to exist. The edges of the ivory panels are either filled with strips of ivory, or display the original ivory decoration. These edges are unsophisticatedly cut and forcefully inserted. Therefore these ivory panels were added to the commode and probably stripped from a cabinet. This could have been requested by the client who intended to emphasize the historical significance of the commode at a slightly later date since its first execution. This very brief time lapse is demonstrated by the continuous patina. This addition doesn't diminish the importance of this piece, but adds to the historical appeal, which is one of the fundamental components of the value of a work of superlative cabinet-making. It is worthwhile noting a Neapolitan cabinet  inlaid with various ancient Neapolitan kings, similar to those upon the offered commode, sold in these Rooms, 28th October 2004, lot 315 (£108,000), reproduced here in fig. 2. Giuseppe Galbiati: There is scant information on the life of Giuseppe Galbiati: he was originally from Lombardy-Veneto, as was his contemporary Luigi De Rossi who was also working in Turin. Galbiati became a master carpenter on the 28th of July 1703, passing the difficult exam of the corporation of cabinet-makers allowing him to open a carpentry workshop according to the strict rules established in the royal act called "Lettere Patenti". A census of 1705 records Galbiati as 26 years old, thus he was born between 1679 and 1680. His workshop was based in via Santa Teresa as well as that of his relative Prospero Galbiati, who also worked in the workshop together with a 14 year old apprentice; the three of them formed the Galbiati workshop which also worked for the royal family. In 1716, they executed a large commission for 800 Italian liras, a pair of buckeye-veneered “bureaux” desks for the Rivoli Castle. According to the 1734 census of the corporation 'The Arts of Turin", the workshop ceased to exist. It is unknown whether it was due to the owner’s death or to his relocation to another town.

  • GBRUnited Kingdom
  • 2012-12-04
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* Note that the price doesn’t correlate with today’s value, but only relates to the actual end price at the time of the purchase.

Porcelain & Pottery

Items made of porcelain, earthenware, stoneware and faience from every country are found under the category Porcelain & Pottery. Plates, cups, antique vases, tableware, china figurines and Chinese serving dishes are just some of the items that can be found up for auction under this heading.

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