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Fernando & Humberto Campana - Dolphins and Sharks Chair

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A swiss tapestry depicting the story of samson and delilah circa 1510-1520

Inscribed: Was mag das beste und d(a)s aller boste sin  Das ist ein wib das kein man Ein guttes wib fol loben kan  Ein gutes Weib wohl loben kann, within later gilt wood frame.  An entry and an illustration for the present weaving was included in the important 1990 catalogue for the Basel exhibition of Gothic and Renaissance tapestries from the Upper Rhine, although the authors of the catalogue were unaware of the location of the piece. This composition is characteristic of the region, charming and primitive in style yet incorporating expressive figures which inhabit a decorative ground and landscape. Germany and Switzerland produced weavings with bold colors and stylized designs which attracted a great many patrons, many of whom required that their coats of arms were woven into the panels. The owner of the pair of armorials on the present tapestry has not yet been determined. The Caramoor Samson and Delilah tapestry is typical of later designs from the Basel workshop, much like the Annunciation tapestry in The Burrell Collection, Glasgow (Rapp Buri et. al., op.cit., no. 83). The Old Testament subject of Samson and Delilah was a traditional scene used to demonstrate the power and cunning of women. Samson, the Old Testament Judge, was generally depicted in art as a womanizer and an adventurer of great physical strength. When Samson took Delilah, a Philistine woman, for a lover, the Philistines saw their chance to defeat him. They bribed Delilah to persuade Samson to reveal the source of his strength. After multiple attempts, she succeeded and he confessed that his strength lay in his hair which had not been cut since birth. Delilah then lulled Samson to sleep and cut off his locks, rendering him helpless and weak.

  • USAUSA
  • 2016-04-12
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Jared lane and apphia ruggles

Painted in New Milford, Connecticut. Signed and dated R. Earl Pinxt 1796 lower left on both portraits; portrait of Mr. Lane does not appear to retain original frame; portrait of Mrs. Lane appears to retain original frame; both portraits retain their original stretchers. The portraits of Jared and Apphia Lane were one of a number commissions that Earl received upon his return to New Milford, Connecticut in 1796. The subjects are Jared Lane (1745-1818) – a nurseryman and farmer and his wife, Apphia Ruggles Lane (1755-1818) – a daughter of Lazarus (1730-1797) and Hannah Bostwick (1736-1812) Ruggles (see lot 922). The commission included a landscape view of his newly constructed house in the Still River Neck district of New Milford.  Through the window in Mr. Lane’s portrait, Earl makes reference to Lane’s grove of Lombardy poplar trees – a tree that he introduced in America for use as an ornamental shade tree.1 In an account recorded in Elizabeth Mankin Kornhauser’s Ralph Earl, The Face of the Young Republic:  "...while Earl completed these portraits, he and his wife boarded with Jared’s father-in-law, Lazarus Ruggles… Jared Lane’s detailed account books provide an illuminating information of Earl’s life as an itinerant artist, his drinking problem and his working methods."2 In addition to paying his father-in-law board for the artist and his wife, paying for the pair of portraits and the landscape view of the Lane homestead, Jared recorded extra expenses including: washing of clothes, providing coffee, and “Spirits and Rum” – which Earl required while working. While working on Apphia’s portrait, he consumed "one gallon and two quarts of spirits and three pints of rum, while painting Jared’s portrait, one gallon of spirits."3 1. Elizabeth Mankin Kornhauser, Ralph Earl, The Face of the Young Republic (Yale University Press, New Haven and London, 1991), p. 202. 2. Ibid., pp. 202-204. 3. Ibid., p. 203.

  • USAUSA
  • 2016-01-22
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A german parcel-gilt silver nef-form drinking cup, esaias zur linden

Revolving wheels, embossed with a dolphin and sea monsters, one repeated at the spout with wings and teeth, two sails, ladders, defenders and pennant Nefs in precious metal have a long history, from the 13thcentury when possibly the earliest recorded example was presented to the shrine of St. Nicholas in thanks for the survival at sea of Louis IX (Saint Louis) and his wife Margaret of Provence. The French word Nef and that part of a church called the nave derive from the same Latin word for ship reflecting their early status which was both religious and secular.  As secular items they were even more important than the salt, being placed next to the prince at table and used to hold his napkin and eating implements. While their exalted status continued, for example Louis XIV’s gold and enamelled nef continued to be reverently bowed to it in the late 17th century1, elsewhere they were adopted as real (and surprisingly efficient) vessels for drinking or pouring wine as part of the theatrical table sculpture of a prince or patrician family. Specialization, including the art of nef making was an important feature of goldsmith’s workshops in 17th century Germany.  Amongst Nuremberg masters of the time, Esaias zur Linden (working years 1609-1632) lot 24 is probably most associated with the skill leaving a record of over 60 nefs in literature and in public and private collections.  The specialization was passed between families and generations. Georg Müllner (working years 1624-1659) lot 25 whose surviving work apart from diamond-decorated cups consists entirely of nefs, married Ursula Wolf, widow of Tobias, a specialist nef maker2; and Conrad Meyer of Ulm (master 1666) lot 23 was apprenticed to Hans Ludwig Kienlin the elder as his first master3, a nef maker whose work is in the Ulm Museum and elsewhere including the collection of Julius Goldschmidt, the Franfurt dealer who helped sort out Mayer Carl Rothschild’s vast collection of German silver after his death in 18864  1 `The Maître Hotel is directed to pause before the nef and bow “with all the reverence of a priest passing before the tabernacle”.’ Cyril G.E.Bunt, `The silver nef’, The Connoisseur, June 1943, pp 90-94 2Karin Tebbe et al. Nürnberger Goldschmidekunst  1541-1868, Nuremberg 2007, no. 597 3Adolf Häberle, Die Goldschmiede zu Ulm, Ulm, 1934, p.55 4Gerald Jasbar et al., Goldschmiedekunst in Ulm, Ulm, 1990, p. 56; Marc Rosenberg, Der Goldschmiede Merkzeichen, Frankfurt a.M., 1925, no. 4780

  • GBRUnited Kingdom
  • 2014-07-09
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Paire d'importants vases couverts en argent par Paul Crespin, poinçons de Londres pour 1726

Paire d'importants vases couverts en argent par Paul Crespin, poinçons de Londres pour 1726, Paire d'importants vases couverts en argent par Paul Crespin, poinçons de Londres pour 1726 Chacun reposant sur un piédouche rond décoré de feuillage, de pampres et de masques, le corps au décor similaire orné de motifs de vagues, d'un cartouche armorié porté par deux putti et sommé d'un panier de fleurs, les anses en forme de faune assis en train de se désaltérer, le couvercle à prise en putto tenant une guirlande, assis à côté d'un panier de fleurs, le dessous des vases insculpés du poinçon de Paul Crespin, de la tête de léopard couronné, du lion passant et de la lettre-date 1726; la bordure des couvercles et le dessous des prises insculpés du poinçon de Crespin et du lion passant uniquement ; le col de l'un des vases estampé "1", la bordure des couvercles estampées respectivement "1" et "2" On cast spreading circular bases decorated with foliage, vines and masks below similarly decorated bodies each applied with two seated satyr handles flanking on either side winged cherub cartouches, later cast coats-of-arms below later baskets of fruit and flowers, the detachable lids applied with further vines and masks below detachable cherub and basket finials; the vases marked on undersides of bodies with the mark of Paul Crespin, crowned leopard's head, lion passant and the date letter for 1726; the cover rims and underside of finials with Crespin's mark and lion passant only; the rim of one vase stamped '1', the lid rims stamped '1' and '2' respectively Silver Haut. totale 47,5 cm, 18 ½ in high overall; the bodies (excluding bases, stems and lids) 26 cm, 10 1/4in high (i.e. the same size as the bodies of the Duke of Marlborough's wine coolers discussed below); poids total 16 242 g, 522oz

  • FRAFrance
  • 2010-12-15
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Bust of George Frideric Handel

This powerful marble bust of the great Baroque composer George Frideric Handel was rediscovered in 2009 and attributed to Roubiliac in an article by David Wilson published in that year (op. cit.). It corresponds closely, both in terms of the facial physiognomy and the arrangement of the drapery, with Roubiliac's terracotta bust of the composer at Grimsthorpe Castle in Lincolnshire, which Wilson has identified as its original model (Wilson, op. cit., pp. 17, 21, fig. 8). Handel was at the zenith of his career when Jonathan Tyers, proprietor of Vauxhall Gardens, London's fashionable pleasure grounds, chose to commission Roubiliac to produce a statue of the great composer (completed 1738, now in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London, inv. no. A.3&A-1965). The commission led Roubiliac to create one of his most innovative sculptural portraits, a full-size statue of the musician, seated, wearing informal garb and playing Apollo's lyre; a unique fusion of the contemporary, the casual and the mythological. Roubiliac's statue was a visual manifestation of Tyers' desire to turn Vauxhall Gardens from a place of disrepute to the playground of polite London society. The statue received acclaim, with Tyers being praised in a 1738 poem published in the London Magazine as a latter day Maecenas: When times remoted dwell on Roubillac's [sic] name, They'll still be just to thee who gave him fame ('I.W.', London Magazine, June 1738, as quoted in Baker, op. cit., p. 257) The success of the statue, thanks in part to the sitter's considerable fame, cemented Roubiliac's reputation as the foremost sculptor active in Britain in the first half of the 18th century, alongside John Michael Rysbrack (1694-1770). This acclaim is likely to have been one of the factors behind the genesis of the sculptor's marble bust of Handel in the Royal Collection, which is dated 1739 (inv. no. RCIN 35255). This bust, which has become one of the defining portraits of the composer, represents him again wearing an a cultivated gentleman's soft cap, in contemporary dress, his outer garment vigorously pulled in opposite directions, as seen in the sculptor's bust of Isaac Ware (circa 1741, Detroit Institute of Arts, Detroit, inv. no. 1987.75). Handel was greatly favoured by the Hanoverian monarchy, having composed the music for the coronation of George II in 1727. Whilst the Royal Collection bust was given to George III by Handel's protégé John Christopher Smith the Younger, circa 1772, it may have been commissioned by Handel himself, as Smith inherited many of the composer's possessions. The terracotta model for the bust is in the Foundling Museum (Wilson, op. cit., p. 19, fig. 11; Baker, op. cit., p. 257). Upon Handel's death in 1759, Roubiliac was to execute the monument to the composer at Westminster Abbey (1759-1761). It was commissioned by the musician's executor and erected high up in a screen in the South Transept. The monument shows Handel alert, listening to the heavenly sounds emanating from the harp played by an angel above. The similarities between the portrait from the monument and the present bust are striking, notably the informal dress and the bared head. The composer's face, which is very close to that of the present bust, may have been carved after a plaster face mask in a private collection. Wilson has suggested that this mask is contemporary to the 1739 Royal Collection bust, given its similarity to the face in the Vauxhall statue (although a death mask by Roubiliac is recorded; Wilson, op. cit., pp. 14 and 16, fig. 5). The present bust finds its closest correlation, however, with a terracotta bust of Handel at Grimsthorpe Castle, which was first published in the 1980's, and has since been given to Roubiliac (Baker, op. cit., p. 259). There is a demonstrable similarity between the two busts, notably the veristic treatment of the face, with lines under the eyes, heavy eyebrows, and protruding lower lip, as well as the near identical arrangement of the drapery, with unbuttoned waistcoat, and tassels brushing up against the left lapel of the outer garment. Wilson has identified marks left by a rasp (a tool used for removing clay during modelling) to the reverse of the bust, indicating that it was modelled and not cast. Wilson posits that the Grimsthorpe bust may therefore be the original model for the present bust (op. cit., pp. 16-21). He argues convincingly that the face itself was cast from a mask (probably that discussed above), as is evidenced by the presence of a clear line around the visage, and fissures to the reverse, explaining the remarkable likeness achieved in the Grimsthorpe and present busts. It is possible that the terracotta was the one in Roubiliac's posthumous sale on 14 May 1762 (lot 75, 'Mr Handell'), though, as Bindman and Baker noted in 1995, '[e]arly  saleroom references to busts of Handel by Roubiliac are difficult to relate to any particular bust' (op. cit.). Another bust of Handel in the Royal Collection, which differs greatly in its execution to the present bust and has a deeper, more rounded, truncation, follows the same composition, but is today given to John Bacon (1740-1799) or his son John Bacon the Younger (1777-1859) (inv. no. 11909; Wilson, op. cit., p. 22; Baker, op. cit., p. 259, note 63). The present bust of Handel exhibits superb carving in the face. Note the overhanging eyebrows and the softened creases in the flesh emanating from the mouth, as well as the lines encircling the ocular orbits. The much more sketchy treatment of the drapery (note, for example, the tassels), together with the impressionistic rendering of the hair, would suggest that the bust is unfinished. To the reverse, the marble from the head has been excavated, with the top of the scalp reattached. As Wilson has argued, this may have been done after the bust had left Roubiliac's workshop to reduce the weight of the bust so as to place it into an architectural setting or above an organ, as was the fashion in the 18th century (Wilson, op. cit., pp. 23-24). This view is given credence by the presence of a metal hook to the reverse of the bust. The present bust has a distinguished provenance, having been in the collection of Alfred Morrison (1821-1897), famed for his unparalleled holdings of autograph letters and manuscripts, including one from the sculptor Roubiliac himself. His homes, at Fonthill (William Beckford's estate) and 16 Carlton House Terrace, were filled with important objets d'art and sculpture, including a marble bust of Voltaire by Houdon. The Voltaire was mentioned by George Henry Lewes whilst on a visit to Carlton House with his partner the novelist George Eliot: 'Called on the Morrisons to see Houdon's bust of Voltaire & their pictures. Bored by being shown all their splendours & rarities: each the finest in the world' (as quoted in Wilson, op. cit., p. 25). Prior to its sale at Christie's in 1900, the present bust was recorded in Morrison's collection in the 1890 Handel entry in the Dictionary of National Biography, there described as being by Roubiliac; the attribution is likely to have been given by the then Director of the National Portrait Gallery, Sir George Scharf, who was very familiar with Roubiliac's work (Wilson, op. cit., p. 25). In terms of 18th century provenance, two tantalising sale records may refer to the present bust. The John Blackwood sale in 1778 included a lot described as: 'Roubiliac, marble busto of Handel, on a pedestal'. Given the unusual socle on the present bust, the word 'pedestal' may indicate that they are one and the same. A bust of Handel said to be by Roubiliac was in the collection of the musicologist John Stanley, in whose sale it was included at Christie's on 24 June 1786 (bought by a Mr Ashley). The catalogue describes: ‘A remarkable fine bust, exquisitely modell’d by Roubilliac, and carved wooden bracket’. The last reference, to a wooden bracket, is interesting given the likelihood that the excavation of the present bust indicates it was intended to be displayed high up. 'Mr Ashley' is almost certainly John Ashley (c.1734–1805), a gifted bassoonist and later (1803-4) Master of the Worshipful Company of Musicians. According to Brian W. Pritchard, ‘Ashley rose to prominence as assistant conductor at the 1784 commemoration of Handel in Westminster Abbey and was involved in the festivals of 1785, 1786, and 1787. Together with Samuel Harrison he revived the Lenten oratorios at Covent Garden Theatre in 1789, offering programmes (on Wednesday and Friday evenings) modelled on the successful repertory of the Handel festivals. Ashley assumed sole direction in 1793, and retained this position until his death' (op. cit.). The sale of this important marble bust of Handel presents a rare opportunity to acquire an arresting 18th-century marble portrait of one of the greatest composers ever to have worked in Britain. RELATED LITERATURE K. Esdaile, The Life and Works of Louis François Roubiliac, Oxford and London, 1928; D. Bindman and M. Baker, Roubiliac and the Eighteenth-Century Monument. Sculpture as Theatre, New Haven and London, 1995, 18, 30-31, 49, 62, 65-66, 68-69, 70-71, 80, 118, 121-122, 156, 233, 332, 378, 383, pls. 28, 37; D. Wilson, ''By Heaven Inspired'. A marble bust of Handel by Roubiliac rediscovered', The British Art Journal, vol. x, no. 1, Spring/Summer, 2009, pp. 14-29; M. Baker, The Marble Index. Roubiliac and Sculptural Portraiture in Eighteenth-century Britain, New Haven and London, 2014, pp. 249-261; Brian W. Pritchard, ‘Ashley, John (c.1734–1805)’,Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 [http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/760, accessed 26 May 2015] Inscribed: BY HEAVEN / INSPIRED.

  • GBRUnited Kingdom
  • 2015-07-09
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A german renaissance gilt-copper and gilt-brass 'reiter uhr' automaton

The two train fuse and chain movement with pinned barrel caps, oval brass plates stamped NS for Nikolaus Schmidt, plain steel pillars, verge and plain brass balance escapement with later hairspring and regulator, locking plate striking on a bell, the richly gilded case surmounted by an elegantly dressed figure astride his horse, the figure moving his head from side to side as the clock strikes, the repoussé gilt-copper base decorated on the upper side with building and creatures and engraved with hours dial and strike recording dial, the moulded lower section decorated with leaves and strapwork, the damascened iron underside with gilt bun feet Nikolaus Schmidt was born in Wiltz, Luxembourg around 1550 and became a Master at Augsburg in 1576. The art of clock making developed rapidly in Europe during the 16th century. Clockmakers looked for ever more innovative ways to incorporate entertainment as well as information into their clocks and the dawn of the spring-driven domestic clock enabled the power of the spring to be utilised in creating portable novelty automaton clocks. Augsburg became a centre of manufacture for such pieces and, as a city renowned for its fine metalworking, the case designs became evermore fanciful. Animals were popular representations with lions, camels, elephants and eagles all featuring strongly. However, models featuring horses and riders, "reiter uhren", are particularly rare with Klaus Maurice stating that only three other similar examples are known. A very similar clock was sold Christies, Amsterdam, 19th December 2007 for €264,000 A German renaissance automaton Unicorn clock was sold in these rooms, Treasures, 9th July 2014 for £722,500.

  • GBRUnited Kingdom
  • 2015-07-08
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Frammento di tappeto luigi xiv savonnerie chaillot, francia, circa 1667

Centrato da tondo, con patere, tra raggera di foglie d' acanto accartocciate, su fondo rosa entro ghirlanda, decoro a pendenti policromi di fiori, frutti, cornucopie con serpenti a spirale e rami d' ulivo su fondo blu, bordo baccellato; frammmentario; restauri Il 7 ottobre 1667 Philippe Lourdet, direttore del laboratorio di Chaillot consegnò al Palazzo del Louvre tredici tappeti Savonnerie per la Galerie D’Apollon, segnando così il completamento dei primi grandiosi e innovativi schemi decorativi dello stile Luigi XIV, attraverso i quali si impresse il nuovo gusto nella corte francese. Lo schema della Galerie d’Apollon servì da anticipazione della ancora più grandiosa serie di novantatre tappeti realizzati per la Grande Galerie che dovettero essere prodotti tra il 1673 e il 1685. Ad eccezione del tappeto d’Apollon, tutti i tappeti per questa galleria furono tessuti due volte, con lo scopo di creare l’effetto di una completa simmetria tra le due parti della galleria e creare una corrispondenza con i pannelli per il soffitto. Prima del patronato di Luigi XIV, i laboratori Savonnerie tessevano generalmente tappeti millefiori a fondo nero, di cui troviamo un esempio al Metropolitan Museum of Art di New York (Watson,. F. J.B., The Wrightsman Collection, Volume II, New York, 1966, Fig. 296, pp.492-3). Con i tappeti d’Apollon, nappe, fiocchi e gale furono sostituiti da decorazioni che indicano l’influenza di antichità classiche. Furono introdotte lunghe foglie d’acanto e girali, e la frutta e i fiori che rimasero furono resi più naturalistici con l’impiego di ghirlande lussureggianti, esotici recessi ombrosi, bouquets e cesti di frutta. I telai di Chaillot, grazie alle innovazioni tecnologiche, iniziarono a produrre tappeti lunghi 9,35 m, mentre generalmente prima erano inferiori ai 5,00 metri. Tutti i tappeti d’Apollon sono a fondo nero o marrone, ma i fondi colorati sono tuttavia presenti su singoli pannelli o rosoni. Lo sfondo blu intenso di questo pezzo suggerisce che probabilmente esso formava, appunto, uno dei due medaglioni in uno dei pannelli estremi. Per un esempio di tappeto integro con simili pannelli alle estremità, si veda Pierre, Verlet, The James A. De Rothschild Collection At Waddesdon Manor, The Savonnerie, Fribourg, 1982, Fig. 109, p. 176. I tappeti d’Apollon furono inseriti nell’Inventario Reale con i numeri dal 67 al 79. Per distinguere i tappeti tessuti per la Galerie d’Apollon da quelli disegnati per la Grande Galerie, si deve osservare la differenza nella realizzazione dei bordi. I bordi dei tappeti d’Apollon sono più stretti, 0,360 m piuttosto che 0,375 m, e nei bordi dei tappeti della Grande Galerie i fiordalisi araldici agli angoli dei bordi, si piegano verso l’interno e non verso l’esterno. Jules Guiffrey, suo volume del 1885, riporta come i bordi dei tappeti d’Apollon fossero a "bordure jaune à godrons jaunes et bleues". I bordi dei tappeti della Grande Galerie presentano grani allungati tra le foglie arricciate, mentre i bordi dei tappeti d’Apollon hanno una forma più classica con linee di solchi ritorti. Per un confronto, si veda Verlet (op. cit.), p. 192. Secondo Verlet (ibid.), i tappeti e i frammenti della Grande Galerie oggi identificati comprendono: due frammenti del numero 67 (uno che si trova al Musée des Gobelins e l’altro nella Chapelle d’Harcourt, a Notre Dame), un tappeto integro della Collezione Niarchos di Parigi (precedentemente Collezione J. P. Morgan), e corrisponderebbero al numero 68 o al numero 69. I numeri 72 e 73 si trovano entrambi al Museo del Louvre. Il tappeto in oggetto è con grande probabilità una sezione dell’estremità del numero 78 o del numero 79, un pannello centrale del quale si trova nel Mobilier National, con il bordo di uno dei tappeti della Grande Galerie. Il pannello centrale dell’altro tappeto è nella collezione Goulandris di Parigi (vendita a Versailles, 15 aprile 1959, n. 130). Verlet (ibid. p. 421) cita due tappeti con coccarde, ghirlande di fiori e cornucopie che potrebbero essere stati realizzati dai pannelli estremi dei numeri 78 e 79. Uno si trova al Mobilier National (GMT.10159), e l’altro, con il bordo della serie della Galerie d’Apollon, era il pezzo numero 141 della vendita Gabriel Cognacq, (Parigi 11-13 giugno 1952), e venne successivamente venduto in Italia. È possibile che questo magnifico frammento sia il tappeto Cognacq. On 7th October 1667 Philippe Lourdet, head of the Chaillot workshop, delivered 13 Savonnerie carpets for the Galerie D’Apollon at the Louvre Palace. This marked the completion of the first Louis XIV’s grand and innovative decorative schemes through which he would stamp his exceptional taste and vision on the French Court and celebrate his new reign. The d’Apollon scheme served as a trial run for the even grander suite of ninety-three carpets designed for the Grande Galerie that were to be produced between 1673 and 1685. Apart from the central d’Apollon carpet, all of the designs for this gallery were woven twice to create an effect of complete symmetry between the two halves of the gallery and to correspond to the panels of the ceiling. Before Louis XIV’s patronage, the Savonnerie workshops were generally weaving black ground millefleurs carpets, the so-called Louis XIII carpets, (for an example in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, see: Watson,. F. J.B., The Wrightsman Collection, Volume II, New York, 1966, Fig. 296, pp.492-3). With the d’Apollon carpets, tassels, ribbons and bows were replaced by ornaments displaying the influence of the classical antiquities. Long trailing acanthus leaves and rinceaux (acanthus scrolls) were introduced and those flowers and fruit that remained were rendered more dramatic and naturalistic by using lush garlands, exotic bowers, bouquets and bowls of fruit. Technological advances were made on the Chaillot looms in order to produce carpets of 9.35m. in length whereas previous weavings were generally less than 5.00m. The d’Apollon carpets all featured black or brown-black grounds although colored grounds, sometimes blue and sometimes ivory, are occasionally found in a panel or a medallion. The deep blue ground of the present lot would suggest that this magnificent fragment probably formed one of the large-scale roundels in one of the two end panels of a carpet from the series. For a complete carpet with similar end panels in the Musée du Louvre, see: Verlet, Pierre, The James A. De Rothschild Collection At Waddesdon Manor, The Savonnerie, Fribourg, 1982, Fig. 109, p. 176. The d’Apollon carpets were entered into the Royal Inventory as numbers 67 to 79. One way of differentiating between those carpets woven for the Galerie d’Apollon and those designed for the Grande Galerie is by the difference in their border treatments. The d’Apollon borders were narrower, 0.360m. rather than 0.375m. and the fleurs-de-lis in the corners of the borders turn inwards rather than facing outwards in the Grande Galerie borders. In his 1885 Inventaire des tapis Louis XIV, Jules Guiffrey describes the d’Apollon borders as bordure jaune à godrons jaunes et bleues. The Grande Galerie borders have elongated beads between curled leaves whereas the d’Apollon borders are more classical in form with lines of cabled fluting. To compare the two patterns see Verlet (op. cit.), p. 192. According to Verlet (ibid.) the surviving carpets and fragments from the Galerie d’Apollon include two fragments from No. 67, one in the Musée des Gobelins and another in the Chapelle d’Harcourt, Notre Dame. There is a complete carpet in the Niarchos Collection in Paris (formerly in the J. P. Morgan Collection), either No. 68 or 69. Carpets 72 and 73 are both in the Musée du Louvre. The current carpet is most likely an end section of No. 78 or 79 of which one central panel is in the Mobilier National with a border from one of the carpets for the Grande Galerie. The central panel from the other carpet is in the Goulandris collection in Paris (formerly sale, Versailles, 15 April 1959, lot 130). Verlet (ibid.) p. 421, cites two carpets with rosettes, garlands of flowers and cornucopias that may have been made up from the end panels of Nos.78 and 79. One is in the Mobilier National (GMT.10159), and the other, with a border from the Galerie d'Apollon series, was lot 141 in the Gabriel Cognacq sale, Paris, 11-13 June 1952, and was subsequently sold in Italy. It is possible that this magnificent fragment is the Cognacq carpet.

  • ITAItaly
  • 2003-10-21
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An austrian silver-gilt, enamel, and lapis three-piece clock garniture

All three pieces of hexagonal tower form, the openwork feet with masks below bases of a strapwork border with gnome terms and a horizontal band of lapis panels centered by oval reliefs of a merman separated by female caryatids  The lower level of each with spiral-twisted columns at the angles, painted with flower garlands and topped by fully modeled figures of Prudence and other virtues, the lapis panels centered by high-relief roundels under glass showing three religious scenes munder glass - Adam and Eve, the Flight into Egypt, and the Vision of St. Hubert - and three mythological ones - the Judgement of Paris and two Pastorals with satyrs and Muses.  The middle level with panels centered by openwork rounds of St. George and the Dragon, the central piece with three clock dials (lacking hands), punctuated by chased floral columns topped by classical figures on the vases and miniature figures of seated Saturn on the clock  The upper level with classical arches centered by monster heads and flanked by putti enamelled en rond bosse, enclosing on the vases classical warriors and on the clock figures of Justice, Prudence, and Charity, alternating with St. George and two warrior kings.  The vases topped by a gallery with seated Saturns and flaring hexagonal vases of champlevé enamel, with caryatid handles ending in rearing demi-horses enamelled en rond bosse in black, the clock with a double ballery of strapwork centered by masks and topped by Roman figures, the lapis turret with openwork ribs, the sides centered by panels of a Pelican feeding its young, classical warrior finial Marked underneath base rim of each piece Hermann Böhm or Boehm was, with Hermann Ratzersdorfer, the foremost Austrian practicioner of Revivalist goldsmith's work.  Working from models preserved in the Imperial Collections, the Green Vaults in Dresden, or shown in deluxe art publications, he used the local talents in painted enamels and hardstone work to create new Renaissance objects of "Rothschild" splendor for an international clientele. The firm was founded in 1866, and in the early 20th century was recorded as being Hermann, Hugo and Max Bohm (a mark is only entered for Hermann) and twelve workers.  At the 1873 Vienna Exhibition, they showed a "Tournament Shield and Weapons in antique style, various 'galantries', and jewelry pieces in Limoges enamel", and received an award for merit.  In 1890 they advertised "Artworks in Gold, Silver, Enamel, Rock Crystal, and Lapis Lazuli", while in 1898 the firm was idenified as making "enamels and pieces in Antique Style". For the offered garniture, Boehm combined antique elements from various sources to creat a new suite of Ringstrasse richness.  The hexagonal form and offset columns derive from early Renaissance tower clocks, but he has pulled them up into additional tiers reminiscent of Spanish altarpieces.  The surface has been clad in hardstone mosaic and decorated with gilt and enamel strapwork in late 16th century style; the arched openings with figures are particularly close to those on a casket by Wenzel Jamniter of Nuremberg preserved in Dresden.  The surmounting turret of the clock, with its little dormer windows, returns to the architectural prototype, while its flanking geometric vases are a fully 19th century conceit, with their naturalistic demi-horses errupting below Renaissance-style caryatid handles

  • USAUSA
  • 2012-10-24
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A fine and rare garniture of five chinese export blue and white vases

Comprising a pair of vases and covers painted on the front and reverse with a large panel of four figures processing along a street before a group of unusual European style buildings; and three vases of shouldered cylindrical form with flared rims, each painted on the front and reverse with a large panel of two warriors on horseback duelling before onlookers within a village, all with artemesia leaf marks in underglaze-blue. Some minor rim chips and frits. Together with five modern ebonized wood low pedestals. 12 pieces. A pair of famille-verte vases of the same form, and painted with the same subject and border patterns as three of the present vases, was included in the exhibition 'The Art of the Qing Potter: Important Chinese Export Porcelain', Chinese Porcelain Company, New York, October 8-November 1, 1997, and illustrated in the Catalogue, pp. 25, no. 10. The catalogue notes, on p. 24, that the subject matter is perhaps taken from the popular Chinese print narrative The Romance of the Three Kingdoms. Such narratives, which included the equally popular The Romance of the Western Chamber, were popular sources for decoration on Chinese ceramics througout the mid-late 18th century. Their popularity diminished in the late Kangxi and early Qianlong period however, as the influence of the West took a stronger hold, and European print sources increasingly became the source for much of the decoration of Chinese porcelain for these huge export markets.

  • USAUSA
  • 2004-10-23
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Pacing Horse

This is a well defined and detailed cast of Giambologna’s seminal Pacing Horse and can be attributed to one of the main successors to the Florentine master’s workshop. The Pacing Horse was one of the most sought-after bronzes conceived by Giambologna, coveted by noblemen and scholars for centuries. The horses on some of Giambologna’s most important equestrian monuments derive from the model, including that dedicated to Cosimo de’ Medici on Florence’s main square. The present bronze comes from the Connoisseurs Collection, from which an important group of English furniture and paintings, which included Thomas Gainsborough’s Study of a Lady and George Stubbs’ King Charles Spaniel, was sold in these rooms on 4 December 2013. Pacing Horse statuettes from the Giambologna workshops A number of payments recorded in the Florentine archives suggest that Giambologna modelled his statuette of the Pacing Horse at the end of 1573. Antonio Susini is thought to have had a hand in designing the horse, since he was employed by Giambologna “to execute the models, moulds, and casts, as well as to clean them, and then construct them” according to Baldinucci. (Gasparotto, p. 92)  From the 1580s onwards Giambologna and Susini cast several examples and their successors, such as Giovanni Francesco Susini (circa 1585-1653) and Giovanni Battista Foggini (1652-1725), continued to use the model. In the years following the success of the Pacing Horse, Giambologna invented one further horse statuette that remained a staple for the workshop: the somewhat more formal Pacing horse with clipped mane which was cast both with and without saddle cloth (see Avery and Radcliffe, op.cit., nos. 152-158). The primary source for equestrian imagery during the Renaissance lay in the ancient monumental sculpture in Italy that remained standing and accessible to the public. The Marcus Aurelius and the Dioscuri in Rome and the San Marco horses in Venice were the most commonly employed prototypes. Giambologna was clearly inspired by the naturalism with which these antiquities are rendered. He masterfully suggested force and tension by his thorough understanding of the animal’s movements and how the skeleton, musculature, veins and skin lay atop one another. What differs from the monumental horses of antiquity is that the Pacing Horse was designed to be viewed at close quarters. As one revolves the horse one after another exquisitely rendered detail emerges, from the carefully delineated pupils to hairs in the mane, and from the elaborately braided tail to the nails in the shoes. Being able to distinguish and express these qualities was perceived as the trait of a true scholar which made the horses so sought after for the Kunstkammern of European princes and nobleman. For Giambologna and his main patrons, the Medici Dukes, they were therefore extremely suited as diplomatic gifts. Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, received a cast of the present model which was inherited by King Charles I in 1611 and is possibly the one now in the collection of Her Majesty the Queen (see Avery and Radcliffe, op.cit., no. 152). Other casts were collected by the Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II in Prague and Augustus the Strong, Elector of Saxony, in Dresden, and examples are kept in the Victoria and Albert Museum (inv. no. A148.1910), The Art Institute of Chicago (60.887), and the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna (5843). Since the bronzes were cast and finished by different members of Giambologna’s workshop, versions of the Pacing Horse have different appearances. Giambologna’s own bronzes tend to be superlative casts with very little chasing, giving many of the details a waxy appearance. He left the eyes blank and was economical with embellishments such as the nails in the hooves. Antonio Susini, on the other hand, was a trained goldsmith and is supposed to have finished his bronzes more thoroughly, adding details such as irises and pupils comparable to the present horse. Gianfrancesco Susini continued in his uncle's vein, sometimes adapting the models slightly by varying the eyes, hooves and the mane. The Pacing Horses by the latter from the Galleria Colonna in Rome illustrated by Gasparotto and the Liechtenstein collection illustrated by Kugel (op.cit., no. 12) have a reddish brown lacquer applied to the surface which compares to parts of the present horse. (op.cit., fig. 4) The present horse is distinguished from these casts by its clearly defined tongue, the long soft tufts of hair at the ergots near the hooves, and the shape of the shoes. Minute parallel lines are visible on the surface of the bronze, showing that it was carefully shaped after casting. The Monument to Grand Duke Cosimo I Aside from the dissemination of statuettes of the Pacing Horse; the model also plays a central role in some of Giambologna’s most important commissions. On 15 January 1563 Giambologna announced his plans for the creation of a major equestrian monument in bronze for his patron Francesco de’Medici. With appropriate humility he described the large design he had drawn and mentioned that he had readied a model for the horse in black wax. Proud of his progress, he stated that the project was ready for execution. (Gasparotto, op.cit., p. 89) The sculptor was not given the commission for the monument by Duke Francesco but clearly continued work on the monument, creating the present statuette amongst other related projects. A letter from 1580 written to the Duke of Urbino by the agent Simone Fortuna suggests that Giambologna was nevertheless still determined to create a great equestrian bronze. Fortuna relayed that the horse and rider were envisaged to be twice the size of the Roman Marcus Aurelius on horseback and was to be located in front of Michelangelo’s David on the Piazza della Signoria. (Gasparotto, op.cit., p. 89) Giambologna was probably aware of the political message a major effigy of a member of the Medici family among the symbols of the Florentine Republic on the square could convey and must have recognised that such a monument would align him with the sculptors of Antiquity, Michelangelo, and the makers of the two other great equestrian monuments of the Renaissance, Donatello and Verrocchio. The Flemish sculptor would have to wait for nearly another decade -until the ascension of the next Grand Duke of Tuscany, Ferdinando I- to realise this magnum opus. Finally, in 1587, Ferdinando I asked Giambologna to plan for a bronze portrait of his father, Grand Duke Cosimo I, on horseback which was to be over four metres in length. Bernardo Vecchietti, a champion of Giambologna, was asked to oversee the project and the design for the monument was refined with the help of painters Ludivico Cigoli and Gregorio Pagani. The complex casting was done in the foundry at Borgo Pinti under the direction of Giovanni Alberghetti with the assistance of further metalworkers, including Antonio Susini and Pietro Tacca, and took place between 1591 and 1594. Despite the involvement of numerous other artists in the monument’s final design, Cosimo’s horse barely deviates from the present model, which was designed nearly two decades before. The monument became an instant success. In a 1594 letter to Emperor Rudolf II, the architect Giovanni Gorgioli praises the quality of the horse and laments that it was not the Emperor’s to possess. (Gasparotto, op.cit., p. 94) Soon, however, Giambologna and his workshop would produce further monuments, including several for foreign rulers. Large monuments were commissioned to commemorate Ferdinando I de’ Medici in Florence, Henry IV of France in Paris, and Philip III of Spain in Madrid. Small versions for Rudolf II and Henry IV are now in museums in Stockholm and Dijon respectively. (see Gasparotto, op.cit., figs. 10-11 and 14-16) RELATED LITERATURE H. Weihrauch, Europaische Bronzestatuetten, Brunswick, 1967, nos. 177-178; C. Avery and A. Radcliffe, Giambologna 1528-1609. Sculptor to the Medici, exh. cat. Royal Scottish Museum, Edinburgh, Victoria and Albert Museum, London, and Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, London, 1978, pp. 172-186; C. Avery, Giambologna, Florence, 1987, pp. 158 and 251; F. Carinci et al., Catalogo della Galleria Colonna in Roma. Sculture, Rome, 1990, pp. 300-301; D. Gasparotto, ‘Cavalli e cavalieri. Il monument equestre da Giambologna a Foggini’, B. Paolozzi Strozzi and D. Zikos, Giambologna. Gli dei, gli eroi, exh. cat. Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Florence, Florence/ Milan, 2006, pp. 88-106; A. Kugel, Les bronzes du Prince de Liechtenstein. Chefs-d'oeuvre de la Renaissance et du Baroque, exh. cat. J. Kugel, Paris, 2008, p. 94, no. 12

  • GBRUnited Kingdom
  • 2014-07-09
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A george iv pietre dure mounted ebony veneered cabinet attributed

With a gilt-bronze beaded and foliate cast gallery above a leaf-cast gilt-wood cavetto cornice and an arrangement of eighteen drawers and three cupboards inset with panels portraying birds and flowers in various coloured semi-precious stones and hardstones, the rear of one drawer fitted with four graduated velvet lined drawers and the rear of a further drawer formerly fitted with the same now lacking drawers, raised on an ebonised stand with ball turned ebonised columns with carved and gilt-limewood Corinthian capitals on a leaf-carved and ebonised mahogany platform with a mirrored back This magnificent cabinet belongs to one of the most important commissions of the 1820s and, together with lot 4, forms part of the celebrated Northumberland group of pietre dure mounted cabinets which includes the renowned royal Cucci Cabinets (see below). Incorporating 17thcentury Florentine panels, this striking cabinet is an homage to the exceptional output of the Grand Ducal workshops and grants us a fascinating insight into the appetite for pietre dure works among the collecting elite of the time. What is particularly interesting about the present cabinet, and what distinguishes it from its counterparts in the collection, is that it was almost certainly supplied by the fashionable London firm Morel & Hughes as part of their extensive Northumberland House commission between 1822 and 1824. Morel & Hughes and The Northumberland House commission Of the numerous programmes of improvement to the Percy's beloved London residence, the alterations by Thomas Cundy (1765–1825) in the 1820s were the most ambitious (see fig. 1). His extensive refurbishment created an entire suite of new rooms in the South Wing of Northumberland House. Cundy also made modifications to Robert Adam’s famous Glass Drawing Room and added the Grand Staircase; a magnificent and triumphal gilt-bronze mounted marble flight of steps designed by Cundy. Other notable buildings which he built or altered significantly include Syon House, the Duke of Northumberland's other prominent London residence, nearby Osterley and Middleton Park for the Earl of Jersey, Tottenham Park in Wiltshire, Burton Constable in Yorkshire and Hawarden Castle in Flintshire, Wales. In 1822, the 3rd Duke engaged Nicholas Morel (fl. 1790-1830) and Robert Hughes (fl. 1805-1830) to supply furniture to Northumberland House following its radical renovation by Cundy. The pair had exceptional pedigree. Morel was part of the Anglo-French band of craftsmen who worked for Henry Holland and Dominque Daguerre in the 1790s, notably at Carlton House. His partnership with Robert Hughes is first recorded in an account for Weston Park dated 4 June 1805 (Phillis Rogers, Journal of the Furniture History Society, 'A Regency Interior: The Remodelling of Weston Park', p. 18, vol. xxiii, 1987). Hughes probably joined Morel the same year the account was recorded (op. cit., p. 11) and they had premises at 13 Great Marlborough Street which were first listed to Morel alone in 1802 and later to Morel & Hughes in Robson's Directory, London, 1820. Throughout their partnership Morel & Hughes enjoyed a rich and discerning client base. The firm supplied the Prince of Wales with furniture for Carlton House between 1810 and 1812. Other noteworthy patrons included the aforementioned 1st Earl of Bradford at Weston Park (1802-03 and 1805-06); the Earl of Mansfield for work at Kenwood (1808); Edward, Lord Lascelles for work at Harewood House, Hanover Square (1809); the Duke of Bedford whom they provided with materials in 1807-08; the Duke of Buccleuch (1813); and the 2nd Marquess of Bath (1813). The Northumberland commission was however their largest and most important, and arguably one of the greatest of the 1820s. Upon completion of the commission June 1824, the Duke was issued with an invoice totalling £34,111 9s 7d. The Morel & Hughes accounts meticulously document the variety and scale of the commission describing all manner of work. Enlisting the talents of London’s leading craftsman they supplied furnishings and decoration including sumptuous textiles and upholstery, wonderful new ‘Grecian’ furniture, richly carved and gilded seat furniture. They were also charged with restoring, enlarging and modernising existing suites and family pieces. Rudolph Akermann, the great arbiter of taste, referred to the Northumberland commission in his Repository of Arts periodical in March 1825, describing the ‘Splendid furniture lately executed for His Grace the Duke of Northumberland', a testament to the importance and fashionability of Morel & Hughes' work. The commission would have certainly influenced the tastes of other noble families, including the 3rd Duke’s close friend George IV who subsequently instructed Morel to start work at Windsor Castle in 1825, then being extensively re-modelled by Sir Jeffry Wyatville. Less than a year later, Morel abruptly dissolved his partnership with Hughes to form one with George Seddon (1769-1857) in order to complete the Royal Commission. Robert Hughes continued to work extensively for the 3rd Duke, not only with the seasonal opening and closing of Northumberland House, but also upholstery and repair work and supplying a number of pieces of new furniture, particularly for Syon House. The cabinet in the context of the pietre dure collection at Northumberland House  The present cabinet was conceived to stand shoulder to shoulder with the Duke’s extant pietre dure mounted cabinets, forming one of the most important collections of its kind amassed in England and which had recently been added to by the acquisition of Louis XIV's exceptional cabinets in 1822. Created by the Italian furniture maker, Domenico Cucci, the Cucci Cabinets were made in the late 17th century for the Sun King’s Palace at Versailles. Two other outstanding cabinets belonging to the family since the 18th century made up a breath-taking assembly of pietre dure cabinets which must have dazzled guests in the resplendent surroundings of the newly renovated Northumberland House (see page 36 for a discussion of the Roman Baroque cabinet). The naturalistically rendered flowers and birds that form the subject matter of the pietre dure mosaic in the decoration of the present cabinet are typical of the output of the Grand Ducal workshops of Florence in the 17th century. Founded in 1588 by Ferdinando I de’ Medici, the Grand Ducal manufactory quickly established itself as the leading producer in the highly specialised field of hardstone mosaic and relief work, a dominance that was to last for three centuries. The designs of the panels on the offered cabinet show the influence of Jacopo Ligozzi’s (Verona 1547-Florence 1626) depictions of flora and fauna, who late in his life was named director of the Grand Ducal workshop. From their inception in the first decades of the 17th century and for over a century thereafter, the jet black colour of the Belgian marble panels made an ideal ground, accentuating the vivid colours of the bird’s plumage and the bright compositions of flowers and fruit which became the signature of the pietre dure panels manufactured in Florence. Admired and coveted across Europe, these panels were frequently imitated but seldom equalled in quality and execution. The panels of the present lot exhibit the great skill and sophistication of the Grand Ducal Workshop, utilising a rich assortment of hardstone, each sensitively chosen and combined to give naturalistic detail, colour and fluidity to the scene. It is interesting to consider how the panels came into Morel & Hughes' workshop. Their account for the work dated 31 March 1823 (Sy.U.I.64(2)), refers to ‘thoroughly repairing another ebony cabinet, larger than preceding, polishing & making good the Mosaic work new carved & gilt mouldings, & an ormolu gallery for the top, composed of wrought columns in suit with foregoing ’. This entry possibly relates to the offered cabinet and suggests the pietre dure panels might have come from a cabinet already in the Northumberland collection, although it is worth noting the carcass of the present lot is entirely English in its construction. Interestingly, there was a longstanding culture of re-using these highly prized articles amongst cabinet makers of the day, from Adam Weisweiler (c.1750-1810) to Robert Hume (fl. 1808-1840). Indeed, Morel & Seddon used 18th century pietre dure panels from a rosewood cabinet made by Tatham & Bailey for Carlton House in 1810, incorporating them in a bath cabinet as part of the Windsor Castle commission (see Jane Roberts, Royal Treasures, London, 2002, pl. 90, p. 163-165). The Royal Collection also contains an ebony and giltwood centre table by Morel & Seddon from the same commission circa 1828. According to their account for the work, the table was conceived ‘to receive His Majesty’s oblong Florentine marble slab’, which resonates with the Northumberland commission and further demonstrates Morel’s proclivity to utilise and incorporate existing materials into his cabinet making (Hugh Roberts, For the Kings Pleasure: The Furnishing and Decoration of George IV's Apartments at Windsor Castle, London, 2001, p.83 and 96). It was also common practice for large firms of cabinet makers and upholsters to acquire materials when the opportunity arose, demonstrated by Morel & Hughes’ acquisition at the sale of The Stock in Trade Of Mr George Bullock Dec., of a large quantity of 'foliage inlaid borders in oak and ebony and also in oak and holly’ (Christie's, Manson & Woods, 14 May 1819, lot 67). When it came to the arrangement of the panels, early Florentine examples of a similar form to the present lot would have been influential and provide interesting precedents, such as the ebony cabinet now at the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (see fig. 2) and a late 17th/early 18th century Indian chestnut cabinet in the Opificio delle Pietre dure Museum (Inv. 577). If the panels did in fact come from an existing cabinet in the Northumberland collection, it is likely to have been of a similar form to these examples.

  • GBRUnited Kingdom
  • 2014-07-09
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A pair of george ii carved mahogany concertina-action card tables circa 1755

The serpentine top with a reeded edge ornamented with crossed- ribbon motifs and inset to the inside with green baize and with an internal slide fitted with a counter or card container, the frieze carved throughout with Gothic headed flutes, on acanthus and scroll-carved cabriole legs with fluted lower sections headed by pearl ornament and terminating in scroll-carved feet raised on faceted pads, hinges stamped Tibats The present superbly elegant mahogany card tables have been attributed to the distinguished London cabinet-makers, upholsterers and tapestry-makers, Paul Saunders and George Smith Bradshaw. Paul Saunders and George Smith Bradshaw Saunders and Bradshaw formed a partnership in around 1751 until 1758. Their workshops were in Greek Street, Soho, London. On the dissolution of this partnership, Bradshaw continued working there having taken John Mayhew as his apprentice, and Saunders moved to Soho Square, having entered a partnership with William Ince. The partnership which was to supply the aristocracy and upper levels of society with furnishings and associated items is known to have supplied furnishing and tapestries to the 1st Duke and Duchess of Northumberland as  invoices totalling £1,607 3s., paid from a Hoare`s bank account established, between 1750 and 1759, see Lucy Wood, The Upholstered Furniture in  The Lady Lever Art Gallery, 2 vols., vol. II, pp.820-821. One of their most prominent commissions was to supply the Earl of Leicester in 1756 with seat furniture for the antique sculpture gallery at Holkam Hall in Norfolk, (see Anthony Coleridge, Chippendale Furniture, 1968, pl.379).  The commission probably came through another cabinet maker William Bradshaw who was recorded as working at Holkham in 1740s and whose work seemed to influence the partnership strongly. The Leicester commission comprised a suite of seat furniture whose leg patterns closely correspond with the legs on the present card tables. Both share the cabriole form headed by finely and richly carved scrolling acanthus foliage with pearl headed flutes and boldly carved cabriole feet below, strongly suggesting that they were produced by the same maker, (fig. 3). For further comparison, the present tables can be compared with a library writing table, attributed to Paul Sanders and probably supplied to Thomas, 3rd Viscount Weymouth, later 1st Marquis of Bath (1734-1796) for Longleat, Wiltshire and sold Christie`s London, Furniture, Silver and Porcelain from Longleat, 13th June 2002, lot 340. The attribution in this case was also based on a similarity of detail to the Holkham suite and also in evidence provided by payments to Paul Saunders of £556 15s in November 1757 and £300 in November 1759, recorded in the bank account at Drummonds of the 3rd Viscount Weymouth (see C. Cator, `Works of Art from Longleat ', Christie`s International Magazine, May/June 2002, pp.69-78). H. Tibats It is interesting to note also that the hinges of the present tables are stamped TIBATS, ( fig. 4). The name appears on the metalwork of a number of very distinguished pieces of furniture of the era of the present tables. It is thought that Tibats may have had workshops in London or was one of the metalwork manufacturers such as Matthew Boulton who had been establishing themselves in  Birmingham. (see P. Thornton, The Journal of the Furniture History Society, Vol. II, 1966). The Design The design of the present tables shows a number of different influences. The popular styles prevalent at the time of their creation were rococo, gothic and chinoiserie. The present tables show two of those fashions- the gothic and the rococo but also show classical influences too. The reeded tops with their crossed ribbon carving and flutes to the frieze relate to classical designs of ancient Rome. The pearl headed flutes derive from the legs of ancient altar tripods. The gothic design seen in the tops of the flutes in the frieze relates to designs published by designers such as Batty Langley (1696-1751), however the overall design most strongly shows the  influence of the rococo. The serpentine form and the free and light carving of the legs with its intertwined foliage and the serpentine form of the top and legs is typical of this design movement. The rococo style of the tables is a style which strongly shows the influence of the school of St Martins Lane, London which had taken over from the area around St Paul`s Church Yard and had become the centre of cabinet making in the second half of 18th century. In particular the St Martin`s Lane Academy founded in 1735 appears to have played an important part in introducing artists, architects, sculptors and other craftsmen to the Régence and early Louis XV styles. The French artist Hubert Francois Gravelot a prominent member of the academy helped introduce the beautiful sculpted serpentine line that was an important element of the rococo style and which can clearly be seen in the present tables. William Hogarth, also a prominent member devised a rationale for the style. In his Analysis of Beauty in 1753, he said the straight line was unnatural and that a beautiful design should have a serpentine, which curled in all three dimensions, to give the outline a novel variety as well as expressing motion. He also stressed that nature could provide all the range of ornament that was needed by the artist. The main structure was provided by the acanthus leaf but no longer confined as with classical design to stiffly presented symmetrical capitals, frieze or bracket but much more free. This freely carved acanthus element can be seen in the carving on the top of the legs of the present tables. More specifically the design of the tables relates to the designs of Thomas Chippendale, suggesting a link with one of the greatest cabinet makers of St Martin`s Lane.  Thomas Chippendale published his book of furniture designs, The Gentleman and Cabinet Maker`s Director in 1754 and the present tables clearly show the influence of the designs shown there.  The fluted carving in the frieze is headed by Gothic arches which relate to a design for a library bookcase in pl.LXXI. ( see fig.5). The form of the legs relates to his designs for a `French’ chair pattern published in the third edition of The Gentleman and Cabinet-Maker`s Director, 1762, pl.XIX, (see fig.6). It is interesting to note that the Director was dedicated to 1st Duke of Northumberland (prior to his elevation to the Dukedom and at the time of publication of the first Director was the Right Hon. Earl of Northumberland). Both William Bradshaw and Paul Saunders (described as an upholsterer) are also listed. For comparison see Christie`s London, New York, 19th October 2000, Important English Furniture,  lot 40, designated ` A Table from Tyttenhanger/ The Property of a Gentleman’ $314,000.

  • GBRUnited Kingdom
  • 2014-07-09
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A gilt-bronze-mounted mahogany table `à l'antique' designed by jacques-louis

The circular top above a gilt-bronze band on a triform plinth base with fluted canted stiles surmounted by a stylised anthemion, the sides with a flaming torch flanked by scrolling acanthus enclosing a patera the griffin feet flanking a stylised anthemion on a  platform base with projecting angles COMPARATIVE LITERATURE: Alvar González-Palacios, Il Gusto dei Principi: Arte di corte del XVII e del XVIII secolo, 1986, Milan, Vol.I, pages 70 and 72; Vol. II, p. 49, fig. 65, p. 51, fig. 75, p. 52, fig. 78 and 79, p. 54, fig. 82-83-84, p. 55, fig. 85. Alvar González-Palacios, La documentation Française, Louvre conférences et colloques « David contre David », 1993, pages 1002-1003. E. J. Delecluze, Souvenirs, Louis David : « Son école et son temps », 1855, pages 20-21. Jean-Pierre Samoyault, Mobilier Français Consulat et Empire, 2009, pps. 121-122, fig. 207. F.J.B. Watson, The Wrightsman Collection, Furniture , Gilt Bronzes and Mounted Porcelain, Carpets, Vol. II, New York, 1966, p. 548. This outstanding table, thoroughly researched by Professor Alvar González-Palacios, can be considered as one of the most important precursors of what would then be defined as the `Empire style". The cahier des memoires of Etienne Delecluze, one of the students of David's Atelier, reveals that David designed various pieces of furniture in order to use them subsequently in his own paintings. David's designs were carried out by the cabinet-maker Georges Jacob, the founder of the illustrious dynasty of Parisian cabinet-makers. Furniture designed by David can be seen in some of the painter's masterpieces including, amongst the others, "the Horaces, Brutus, Paris and Helena". More specifically with reference to the offered table, it appears in the celebrated painting "Les Licteurs rapportent a Brutus les corps de ses fils", realized by David in 1789 and now conserved at the Louvre Museum, Paris-reproduced here in fig. 1. In the painting, although the table is covered by a table cloth, the tripod base with its gilt-bronze mounts is identifiable. David's source of inspiration for this table can be traced to one of the engravings by Bertheault, in Abbot Saint-Non's 1792, `Voyage Pittoresque à Naples et en Sicilie' reproduced here in fig.  2. Furthermore, one of the drawings of this table made by David `Table antique avec des vases' , following one of his trips in Rome, is now conserved in the Cabinet des Dessins of the Louvre, is after Saint-Non's etching-reproduced here in fig. 3. Another source of inspiration for the gilt-bronze mount with the flaming torch and rinceaux on the base of the table, can be seen in a Fragment of the Ara Pacis of Augustus in Rome (Museo Nazionale, Rome), illustrated by González-Palacios, op. cit., p. 1002, fig. 207, reproduced here in fig. 4. This decoration emphasises the Antique inspiration for this furniture by basing it on an Antique monument. David was one of the protectors of Jacob and was one of the first to order furniture in the `Antique 'style for his own use and also as demonstrated by the painting, as an accessory in his atelier. The table, executed well before 1789 (when the painting of Brutus was finished), still under the reign of Louis XVI, represents the birth of what is nowadays called the Empire style, yet still under the Ançien Regime. A very similar guéridon, attributed to Jacob Frères or Jacob-Desmalter, with a white marble top but virtually identical base with a patera flanked by husks on the stiles and rosettes on the apron instead of anthemions, is illustrated by Samoyault, op. cit., p. 122, fig. 207, now conserved at the Ministry of Defence in Paris, reproduced here in fig. 5. This piece is of  extraordinary interest not only because of its intrinsic quality, elegant proportions and superlative craftsmanship but also because it represents a starting point for the history of Empire furniture as it must be dated around 1785 and at the latest before 1789. Jacques-Louis David (1748-1825): He ranks as one of the most influential French painters in the Neoclassical style and was considered to be the pre-eminent painter of his time. In the 1780's, his history painting marked a change in taste away from Rococo towards a classical severity which was in tune with the moral climate of the final years of the Ançien Régime. David later became an active supporter of the French Revolution and friend of Maximilien Robespierre (1758–1794). The former was imprisoned after Robespierre's fall from power and upon his release, he aligned himself with yet another political regime, that of Napoleon I. It was at this time that he developed his Empire style. David had numerous pupils, making him the strongest influence in French art of the early 19th century, especially academic Salon painting. Jacques-Louis David was born into a prosperous family in Paris on 30th August 1748. When he was about nine his father was killed in a duel and his mother left him with his prosperous architect uncles. He went to work as an apprentice to François Boucher (1703–1770), the leading painter of the time, who was also a distant relative. There David attended the Royal Academy, based in what is now the Louvre. He then went to Italy in 1775 and whilst in Rome, he studied the great artists. In 1779, David was able to visit the ruins of Pompeii, He later sent the Academy two paintings and both were included in the Salon of 1781. After the Salon, King Louis XVI granted David lodging in the Louvre and the latter was commissioned by the government to paint "Horace defended by his Father", but he soon decided, "Only in Rome can I paint Romans." In Rome, David painted his famous Oath of the Horatii, in 1784. For the salon of 1787, David exhibited his famous Death of Socrates. For his next painting, David created The Lictors Bring to Brutus the Bodies of His Sons. The work had tremendous appeal for the time. Before the opening of the Salon, the French Revolution had begun. The National Assembly had been established, and the Bastille had fallen. The royal court did not want propaganda agitating the people, so all paintings had to be checked before being hung. When the newspapers reported that the government had not allowed the showing of The Lictors Bring to Brutus the Bodies of His Sons, the populous was outraged, and the royals were forced to back down. The painting was a Republican symbol, and obviously had immense symbolism during these turbulent times in France. In his attempt to depict political events of the Revolution, David was venturing down a new path in the art world. Tragically, David was leaving a theatre when a carriage struck him which later proved fatal and he died on 29th December 1825. Georges Jacob (1739-1814), received master in 1765: Georges Jacob (1739-1814) was the most celebrated and outstanding Parisian menusier in second half of the 18th century during the reign of Louis XVI. He founded a dynasty of furniture makers that prospered for almost one hundred years. Born at Cheny to a peasant family, he arrived in Paris at the age of sixteen and was a furniture apprentice, although it is not known to whom. On September 4th 1765, he became a maître and set up his workshop in rue de Cléry. Unlike most of his menuisiers-ébénistes, he practiced both crafts and his greatest output was of chairs. He was already enjoying great success early on in his career as by 1773, he was already working for the Garde-Meuble and employed to repair some Louis XIV medal cabinets in the Boulle technique from the château de Saint-Cloud and at least one of these cabinets which bears his stamp which is now in the Louvre. He was named in 1781, ébéniste-ordinaire to Monsieur le Comte de Provence (Louis XVIII later on) and he was one of the fournisseurs du Menus-Plaisirs from 1781 and was patronised by Marie-Antoinette. In 1775, he acquired much larger premises at 77 Rue Meslay and which was used by his family until 1825. In 1788, he was made deputy syndic of his guild and but for the Revolution breaking out he would have become a syndic himself in the following year. His illustrious clients included the Comte d'Artois, the younger brother of Louis XVI, the Prince de Condé, the Duc de Chartres, the Prince of Conti to name but a few. He also worked for foreign clients including the Prince of Wales, later George IV, Gustavus III of Sweden, Prince Kinsky etc. He enjoyed great wealth and a distinguished position in society until the fall of the monarchy, when their flight caused him great financial loss. During the Revolution, his previous aristocratic links caused him to be denounced to the Committee of Public Safety but the protection of the celebrated painter Jacques-Louis David who had employed him in pre-revolutionary days, saved him on each occasion. Jacob then changed  to making other types of furniture at the start of the Revolution and concentrated more on ébénisterie, using more mahogany, maple, satinwood and other native woods and adopting more neo-classical designs. In 1796, he handed his business over to his two sons, Georges and François-Honoré-Georges, and retired. His immense output, included chairs in the Louis XV but more prolifically, the Louis XVI style was his innovation more than any other menuisier. He was probably the first Parisian craftsman to use solid polished mahogany for chair-making. According to Watson, op. cit., `the furniture he made for David's studio seen in the painting of Les Amours de Paris et Hélène of 1788 and other works, was inspired by the decoration of Greek vases. It anticipates the extreme neo-classical style that his sons were to develop with great success under Napoleon.' He made, in 1791, a mahogany table which later belonged to King Joseph, Emperor Napoleon's brother, which shows even closer affinities with post-Revolutionary styles. He was the first to introduce the sabre leg in anticipation of the Empire style. The painter Hubert Robert supplied the designs in the `Etruscan style' for the advanced neo-classical furniture that he made in mahogany for the Queen's Laiterie at Rambouillet.

  • GBRUnited Kingdom
  • 2012-07-04
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A gilt-bronze-mounted amaranth, tulipwood and parquetry bureau plat

With a gilt-bronze banded tooled leather top above a pull-out tooled leather writing slide on each side above three frieze drawers opposing dummy drawers mounted with a gilt-bronze border with stylised Greek key motif and laurel leaf escutcheons within a further band of ribbon-tied reeds with similarly inlaid sides, each stile with a projecting block applied with a gilt-bronze patera each side with an acanthus leaf cast mount on square tapering legs applied with berried laurel swags on gilt-bronze sabots, the inside of the central drawer with two ink inscribed labels one with the number 10611 the other with 469,1103222 Comparative Literature: Alexandre Pradère, French Furniture Makers, The Art of the Ebéniste from Louis XIV to the Revolution, Tours, 1989, p. 306, fig. 344. This extremely elegant bureau plat, with its distinguished, restrained lines and interlaced Greek-key frieze, reflects the goût grec style so typical of the taste for understated neo-classicism of the 1760's and 1770's. The goût grec style was introduced in the 1750's by the architect Louis-Joseph Le Lorrain. Probably working in collaboration with a marchand-mercier such as Simon-Philippe Poirier, Le Lorrain's goût grec style was first realized in the designs for the celebrated suite of furniture supplied for the Parisian hotel of the amateur Ange-Laurent Lalive de Jully circa 1755, which included the bureau plat and cartonnier now in the musée Condé at Chantilly. Within a few years, this bold manner had gained wide popularity, and in 1763 Baron de Grimm was writing in Paris: 'tout se fait aujourd'hui la grècque' (ibid. p. 264). This bureau plat forms part of the well-documented group of bureaux à la Grecque stamped by the ébénistes Montigny and Dubois. Executed in either amaranth and tulipwood or in ebony, often displaying the same distinctive ormolu mounts and of very similar proportions and design, this group reflects the close collaboration of these two celebrated ébénistes. The two were cousins and their combined stamps are found on furniture at Waddesdon Manor and at the Wallace Collection. The most unusual features of this particularly well-structured bureau are the large central frieze drawer creating a kneehole and the laurel leaf drapery swags on the legs which are a variation on the usual fronts and drapery angle mounts which are normally found on bureaux of this type. It is also larger than most of the other comparable examples. Related bureaux plats by Montigny: - a related bureau plat with similar marquetry and virtually identical mounts is in the Musée Cognacq-Jay in Paris (inv. no. J361) and reproduced here in fig. 1. - a bureau plat with different frieze and leg mounts stamped Montigny (Private Collection), is illustrated by Pradère, op. cit. p. 306, fig. 344. - two others both smaller and attributed to Montigny, sold at Sotheby's, Monaco; one on 26th February 1992, lot 221 (2,109,000FF), the other 12th December 1998, lot 36, (1,100,000FF), also with different frieze and leg mounts to those on the present bureau. - a bureau plat described as in the manner of Montigny, smaller, with different marquetry, frieze and leg mounts, was sold as lot 34, from the Karl Lagerfeld Collection, Christie's, Monaco, 28th-29th April 2000 (1,467,500 FF). - a bureau plat stamped Montigny, with similar marquetry, but slightly different mounts on the frieze and legs, was sold as lot 266, Christie's, New York, 2nd November 2000 ($215,000). - a smaller bureau plat stamped Montigny, with different marquetry, frieze and leg mounts, was sold as lot 80, Sotheby's, Paris, 23rd June 2004 (254,400 euros). - a similar bureau stamped Montigny, without the distinctive gilt-bronze borders of the present desk but otherwise virtually identical frieze mounts was sold as lot 160, Sotheby's, Paris, 10th November 2009 (204,750 euros), see fig. 2. Philippe-Claude Montigny (1734-1800): Montigny was born in Paris, the son of Louis Montigny an ébéniste in the rue Faubourg Saint-Antoine. He received master in 1766 and took over his father's workshop in the Cour de la Juiverie where he was to remain for the rest of his life.

  • GBRUnited Kingdom
  • 2012-07-04
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A george iii 12 inch diameter selenographia circa 1797, by john russell

Composed of the moon globe drawn by him, fitted with his patent apparatus for displaying the lunar libration, the pasteboard globe with gores printed from stipple engraved copper plates by Russell, showing the visible face of the Moon and with two inscriptions on the empty `dark side' : `By His Majesty`s Letters Patent This Globe being part of the Apparatus names the Selenographia designed to exhibit the lunar libration &c is published by the Author, Newman Street, London June 14th 1797' and `A Globe representing the visible surface of the Moon constructed from Triangles measured with a Micrometer and accurately drawn & engraved from a long series of telescopic Observations by J. Russell R.A.', the globe mounted within a brass hemisphere on a baluster column raised by a shallowly domed circular foot, in the original glazed brass case The Globe The globe is mounted within a brass hemisphere on a column, in turn raised on a domed circular foot. The hemisphere both supports the globe and imparts motion to it so that the equatorial poles of the globe can be rotated around the poles of the ecliptic. Other parts of the mount-apparatus represent the `boundary of light' for all the Moon`s positions in relation to the Sun, and so show which spots appear on the edge of the lunar disc; other parts allow the age of the Moon and the difference in position between the periodical and synodical rotation, while provision of a small terrestrial globe makes visible the lunar parallax or daily and monthly libration, that is the slight oscillation of the Moon on its axis which causes that part of the lunar surface near to the edges of the disc to swing alternately in and out of sight. John Russell R.A. ( 1745-1806). Born in Guildford, and despite his sometimes violently expressed Methodist convictions, he was a highly successful society portraitist with a passion for the study and depiction of the Moon (fig.2 ). He grew up in a family with an interest in the arts which led to his apprenticeship to the portraitist Francis Coates, a founder member of the Royal Academy. He was elected Associate of the Royal Academy in 1782, full Academician in 1788, and from 1790 his royal commissions earned him the title of `Painter to the King ( George III) and the Prince of Wales. His interest in astronomy was not only scientific but `stricken by the beauty of the Moon', was also artistic.  From the mid 1760s onwards Russell ` lost few opportunities when the Atmosphere has exhibited the object' to observe, map and draw the Moon. These efforts culminated in 1795 in a pastel portrait of it, 4ft. 4in. by 5ft., which he followed immediately with his invention of the Selenographia apparatus to give an accurate three-dimensional model. With commercial exploitation in mind Russell patented his apparatus on 5th November 1796, publishing the globe the following year together with an explanatory booklet entitled `A Description of the Selenographia: an Apparatus for exhibiting the Phenomena of the Moon, together with An Account of some of the Purposes which it may be applied to'. A few examples only are known to have survived, eleven in total, ( two in the Science Museum, London, ( fig. 4), one of which was formerly in the Royal Collection at Windsor,  one in the National Maritime Museum, London, ( fig. 3), one in the Museum of the History of Science, Oxford ,  one at the Royal Astronomical Society, another is in the Observatory in Madrid and others in private collections ). A globe without the selenographic mount is also held in the Science Museum, as are several sets of the printed gores in Oxford. Some of these are on a simple wooden stand, only depicting the surface of the moon without the devices for demonstrating lunar libration, where as others, such as the present example are made of either heavy brass or mahogany and with the libration devices. George O`Brien Wyndham, 3rd Earl of Egremont, (1751-1837). George O`Brien Wyndham succeeded his father as 3rd Earl in 1763, when he was a twelve year old schoolboy (fig.5). He inherited the magnificent Petworth House in West Sussex which now entered a new golden age. A kind and generous man, he was a benevolent landlord and landowner. He was also an innovative one and became increasingly famous for his experiments in crop-rotation and was hailed  as `one of the fathers of modern English agriculture'. He also invested in forward thinking schemes such as the Chichester canal and the Brighton chain-pier which is commemorated in paintings by Turner. He financed roads, waterways, hospitals, schools, alms houses, a gas works and Petworth Town Hall. He was also a considerable patron of the arts and great collector. He is probably most famous for his patronage of J.M.W.Turner by whom there are no fewer than 20 paintings at Petworth. However he was known to have been patronising the arts and fostering `rising genius, long before he bought his first Turner. In 1783 Egremont`s name appears in an entry for 1783 in Sir Joshua Reynolds`s ledgers: in 1785 he bought prints by Hogarth, in 1795 he commissioned a portrait of his mistress, Elizabeth Ilive ( known by a courtesy title as `Mrs Wyndham') and her children from George Romney, ( fig. 6).  Subject pictures by James Barry, Sir Francis Bourgeois, Henry Fuseli and John Opie were also represented in his early collecting carreer. However it was from 1790s that he flourished as a patron and collector of British art. Artists such as Turner, Beechey, Chantrey, Phillips and Leslie were of the inner circle of Lord Egremont`s artistic friends, and during their long stays were always made to feel at home.  Sadly his papers were burned after his death and so much of his collecting activities have had to be pieced together from other sources. In common with many aristocrats of the late 18th century, the 3rd Earl was also interested in science. As a great patron of art, Lord Egremont would have been acquainted with John Russell and with his additional interest in science it is easy to understand why he would purchase such a piece as the present globe for the Egremont collection.  The Earl`s library contained many scientific works and he is known to have bought electrical and optical apparatus from leading London scientific instrument makers. Many of such purchases were made from suppliers such as George Adams, ( Mathematical Instrument Maker to His Majesty, Fleet Street) who specialised in scientific instruments including globes and telescopes. However in the present case the receipt appears to have been from Russell directly to Lord Egremont suggesting that the selenographia was a direct purchase, (fig. 1). Unusually for the times, the Earl`s mistress, `Mrs Wyndham'  was also a  lady of great scientific repute. She resided at Petworth and also entertained artists and also indulged a taste for chemical experiments. Through an agent much scientific equipment was bought for her and in 1796 she was awarded a silver medal for the invention of a cross-bar lever to improve the lifting of heavy weights. Given her scientific interest, it is possible that the present lot could have been purchased with her in mind. She subsequently married the Earl in 1801 but sadly the marriage did not last and she left Petworth within a year or two the marriage, never to return. She died in 1822. Count Brühl, ( 1736-1809). The stimulus for the original purchase of the present selenographia may also have come from Lord Egremont`s step- father Count Brühl, (1736-1809), known as John Maurice, Count of Bruhl.  Born at Wiederau, the son of F.W. Graf. Von Brühl of Martinskirchen, he studied at Leipzig. Moving to  Paris, in 1755, Brühl, then in his nineteenth year, took an active part in Saxon diplomacy, and was summoned to Warsaw in 1759. He was named, through his uncle's influence, chamberlain and commandant in Thuringia, and in 1764 appointed Ambassador Extraordinary to the Court of St. James. In 1767, he married Alicia Maria, Dowager Countess of Egremont. He loved astronomy and promoted its interests. Through his influence Franz Xaver von Zach, who entered his family as tutor shortly after his arrival in London in November 1783, became an astronomer. With a Hadley's sextant and a chronometer by Josiah Emery, they together determined, in 1785, the latitudes and longitudes of Brussels, Frankfurt, Dresden, and Paris. Brühl built (probably in 1787) a small observatory at his villa at Harefield, and set up there, about 1794, a two-foot astronomical circle by Jesse Ramsden, one of the first instruments of the kind made in England. He was intimate with William Herschel, and transmitted news of discoveries abroad through Johann Elert Bode's Jahrbuch. He supported the advancement of chronometry, in the work of Thomas Mudge and Emery. Except for one journey homeward in 1785, he never afterwards left England, but died at his house in Old Burlington Street on 9 June 1809, aged 72. It is interesting to note that there is in the present Petworth collection a portrait by Russell of the Count which indicates that they were well acquainted and would support a suggestion that he may have been instrumental in directing the purchase of the present lot.

  • GBRUnited Kingdom
  • 2012-07-04
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A Sevres blue-ground travelling tea and coffee service (Dejeuner d'un arabe)

A Sevres blue-ground travelling tea and coffee service (Dejeuner d'un arabe) Circa 1838, blue Louis Philippe marks, the tray signed and dated C. Develly 1837, various painter's marks, gilder's ochre AB. marks for Antoine-Gabriel Boullemier Richly painted by Jean-Charles Develly with Oriental subjects within gilt ciselé cartouches and named below in gilt gothic script, each cartouche with two columns supporting flattened arches, flanked by panels of gilt scrolling foliage and arabesques, the borders with gilt scrolling foliage, crescents, stars and gilt geometric ornament enriched in platinum, comprising: An oval tray (plateau ovale 1e grandeur), painted with Pélerinage de la Mecque. within an oval gilt ciselé lobed cartouche An oviform coffee-pot and cover (cafetière campanienne), painted with Le repas du Cheik en voyage. and Récolte des Dattes, the fluted spout issuing from an up-turned foliage terminal, the handle formed as scrolling anthemion, the flat cover with slender bud finial (minute chip to flange of cover) A cylindrical teapot and cover (Theyere (sic) Fragonard simple), painted with L'Hospitalité. and Le Marchand d'esclaves., with loop handle, scroll spout, slightly waisted foot and flared flange at the shoulder below a shallow domed top and cover (handle broken off, restuck and restored, chip and restoration to upper rim of teapot, cover with minute chipping to underside of rim and chip to flange) A helmet-shaped hot-milk jug (Pot à lait litron Fragonard), painted with Fête sous la Tente., the interior gilt with scrolling arabesques above a band of geometric zig-zag and crescent ornament, the loop handle with richly moulded anthemion terminals, the gadrooned lower part above a waisted foot A cylindrical sugar-bowl and cover (Pot à sucre litron Fragonard), with scrolling anthemion handles, flared flange at the shoulder and slightly waisted foot, the shallow domed cover with palmette finial (chip to finial) Six cylindrical cups (Tasses litron Fragonard), each gilt loop handle with dolphin's head and snakes's head terminals, painted with Le Conteur., La Halte au désert., Travaux des Femmes, Le Marabout.,Le Devin. and Les Pâtres de l'Atlas (one with two rim chips and associated crack) Six saucers (one with rim chip and associated crack)

  • GBRUnited Kingdom
  • 2000-04-17
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An extensive Meissen dinner service, circa 1755-1760

An important and extensive Meissen part table service ordered by Frederick the Great circa 1761, Of "preußisch-musikalischen" design, each piece painted at the centre with a large spray of flowers within a shaped border of six rococo relief panels of flowers and emblems within gilt scrolled borders on a green fish-scale diaper enamel ground with gilt dentil border, many pieces with impressed number 22 or 31, the tureen covers with modelled recumbent figures of Roman soldiers and scantily clad muses and comprising: a large pair of oval two handled tureens, covers and stands, one underdish with riveted handle, one Roman figure with slightly damaged plume, the underdishes 55cm.; 21¾in. a set of three two-handled tureen, covers and stands, each on four hairy paw feet, knops with minor damage or restoration, one foot restuck, the underdishes 44.5cm.; 17½in. a pair of circular two-handled tureens, covers and stands, covers cracked, the underdishes 38cm. diameter; 15in. a large shaped oval two-handled tray, 58.5cm.; 23in. another shaped oval tray, 49.5cm.; 19½in. a pair of two-handled underdishes, 43cm.; 17in. A large pierced shaped oval two-handled centre basket, one riveted handle, 15½in. a set of six shell butter dishes and covers, correspondingly numbered to fit, numbers 1, 6, 2, 3, 13 and 9, number 9 with riveted base, 11.5cm. across; 4½in.  two large circular dishes, 33cm.; 13in. four circular dishes, two with centre cracks, 30cm.; 11¾in. Four circular dishes, 28.5cm.; 11¼in. twenty soup plates, one riveted, two cracked, one chipped sixty-seven plates, fifteen with large or small chips, one cracked, 26cm.; 10¼in. Two circular domed covers, one cracked and finials damaged, 32cm.; 12½in. Two circular domed covers, 28cm.; 11in. Four circular domed covers, finials damaged, 27cm.; 10½in. Twelve replacement plates underglaze-blue crossed swords marks Quantity: 155

  • GBRUnited Kingdom
  • 2006-09-19
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A george iv gilt-bronze mounted satinwood inlaid gonçalo alves and

The circular goncalo alves veneered top inlaid with a continuous band of finely figured satinwood foliate motifs within a gadroon-moulded border, the plain frieze with gilt rope-twist moulding, on three turned tapering columns with leaf-carved giltwood collars centred with a triangular column with an acanthus and palmette-carved giltwood lower section ending on three paw feet, the tricorn base with gilt-bronze stylised scrolled acanthus feet, on brass cappings and castors This magnificent centre table almost certainly belongs to one of the most important commissions of the 1820s, belonging to a group of furnishings supplied by the fashionable London firm Morel & Hughes to Hugh Percy, 3rd Duke of Northumberland, as part of their extensive Northumberland House commission between 1822 and 1824. Hauntingly illustrated in a photograph of The Saloon at Northumberland House, taking shortly before the house was demolished, this table represents a precious link to the Ducal splendour of one of London’s great lost houses (see fig. 1). Of the numerous programmes of improvement to the Percy's beloved London residence, the alterations by Thomas Cundy (1765–1825) in the 1820s were the most ambitious. His extensive refurbishment created an entire suite of new rooms in the South Wing of Northumberland House. Cundy also made modifications to Robert Adam’s famous Glass Drawing Room and added the Grand Staircase; a magnificent and triumphal gilt-bronze mounted marble flight of steps designed by Cundy. Other notable buildings which he built or altered significantly include Syon House, the Duke of Northumberland's other prominent London residence, nearby Osterley and Middleton Park for the Earl of Jersey, Tottenham Park in Wiltshire, Burton Constable in Yorkshire and Hawarden Castle in Flintshire, Wales. In 1822, the 3rd Duke engaged Nicholas Morel (fl. 1790-1830) and Robert Hughes (fl. 1805-1830) to supply furniture to Northumberland House following its radical renovation. The pair had exceptional pedigree. Morel was part of the Anglo-French band of émigré craftsmen who worked for Henry Holland and Dominque Daguerre in the 1790s, notably at Carlton House. His partnership with Hughes is first recorded in an account for 1st Earl of Bradford at Weston Park dated 4 June 1805 (Phillis Rogers, Journal of the Furniture History Society, 'A Regency Interior: The Remodelling of Weston Park', p. 18, vol. XXIII, 1987). Hughes probably joined Morel the same year the account was recorded (op. cit., p. 11) and they had premises at 13 Great Marlborough Street which were first listed to Morel in Robson's Directory in 1802 and later to Morel & Hughes in 1820. Throughout their partnership Morel & Hughes enjoyed a rich and discerning client base. The firm supplied the Prince of Wales with furniture for Carlton House between 1810 and 1812. Other noteworthy patrons included the aforementioned 1st Earl of Bradford at Weston Park (1802-03 and 1805-06); the Earl of Mansfield for work at Kenwood (1808); Edward, Lord Lascelles for work at Harewood House, Hanover Square (1809); the Duke of Bedford whom they provided with materials in 1807-08; the Duke of Buccleuch (1813); and the 2nd Marquess of Bath (1813). The Northumberland commission was however their largest and most important, and arguably one of the greatest of the 1820s. The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) did little to impact the English appetite for French design in the first part of the 19th century, and the ‘French’, ‘Antique’ or ‘Louis Quatorze’ manner was one of the most important styles to emerge during this period. The present centre or 'loo' table – so called as it was originally designed for the card game 'lanterloo' - is conceived in this 'French' or 'Antique' style, with a richly figured gonçalo alves top inlaid with a satinwood border of acanthus, palmettes and bell flowers, whilst the overall form of the base recalls the designs of classical altars and pedestals promoted by Charles Heathcote Tatham (1772-1842) and Thomas Hope (1769-1831). Upon completion of the commission June 1824, the Duke was issued with an invoice totalling £34,111 9s 7d. The Morel & Hughes accounts meticulously document the variety and scale of the commission describing all manner of work. Enlisting the talents of London’s leading craftsman they supplied furnishings and decoration including sumptuous textiles and upholstery, wonderful new ‘Antique’ furniture, richly carved and gilded seat furniture. They were also charged with restoring, enlarging and modernising existing suites and family pieces. Rudolph Akermann, the great arbiter of taste, referred to the Northumberland commission in his Repository of Arts periodical in March 1825, describing the ‘Splendid furniture lately executed for His Grace the Duke of Northumberland', a testament to the importance and fashionability of Morel & Hughes' work. The commission would have certainly influenced the tastes of other noble families, including the 3rd Duke’s close friend George IV who subsequently instructed Morel to start work at Windsor Castle in 1825, then being extensively re-modelled by Sir Jeffry Wyatville. Less than a year later, Morel abruptly dissolved his partnership with Hughes to form one with George Seddon (1769-1857) in order to complete the Royal Commission. Robert Hughes continued to work extensively for the 3rd Duke, not only with the seasonal opening and closing of Northumberland House, but also upholstery and repair work and supplying a number of pieces of new furniture, particularly for Syon House.

  • GBRUnited Kingdom
  • 2015-07-08
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* Note that the price doesn’t correlate with today’s value, but only relates to the actual end price at the time of the purchase.

Porcelain & Pottery

Items made of porcelain, earthenware, stoneware and faience from every country are found under the category Porcelain & Pottery. Plates, cups, antique vases, tableware, china figurines and Chinese serving dishes are just some of the items that can be found up for auction under this heading.

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