All auctions in one place

  • Porcelain & Pottery

    11 125 For sale

    488 152 Sold

  • 0—451 000 000 USD
  • 2 Oct 1989—15 Dec 2017

Filters

Clear all
- USD
Advert

An important pair of george iii polychrome-painted satinwood and parcel-gilt

Each D-shaped top with a banding painted with floral garlands, the conforming frieze with flowerheads within roundels alternating with sheaved acanthus sprays raised on circular fluted tapering legs headed by oval patera with acanthus-carved capitals and ending in stiff leaves and joined by fluted and beaded stretchers centered by a foliate-form finial and raised on toupee feet.  The underside of one with an paper label printed Jas. Bowman & Sons / 109 / MONK BAR, YORK. These tables with their beautifully figured satinwood tops painted with floral bandings and their distinctive frieze and legs are similar to the work of Thomas Chippendale and to the designs of Thomas Sheraton.  The frieze specifically recalls the work of Chippendale at Harewood House including a pier table with marquetry top with a nearly identical frieze and to the inlaid frieze of the Harewood House library table, now in the Leeds Art Gallery (Christopher Gilbert, The Life and Work of Thomas Chippendale, New York, 1978 vol. II, p. 242 and 265, figs. 442, 443, and 485). The design of the stretchers and overall profile of the table is very similar to Sheraton’s design for a pier table as illustrated in ‘The Cabinet-Maker and Upholsterer’s Drawing Book,’ London 1793, Plat IV from the Appendix.  Sheraton states, ‘As pier tables are merely for ornament under a glass, they are generally made very light, and the style of finishing them is rich and elegant.  Sometimes the tops are solid marble, but most commonly veneered in rich satin, or other valuable wood with a cross-band on the outside, a border about two inches richly japanned, and a narrow cross-band beyond it, to go all around.  The frames are commonly gold, or white and burnished gold.  Stretching-rails have of late been introduced to these tables, and it must be owned that it is with good effect…they afford an opportunity of fixing a vase or basket of flowers.’ A similar pair of pier tables with satinwood tops, japanned foliate-banded and similar stretchers sold at Sotheby’s London, November 15, 1996, lot 75. Designed by Robert Adam in 1758, Harewood House was one of Adam’s most impressive and complete houses, which allowed him the ability to completely design the exterior and interior of the house to his own specifications for Edward Lascelles, Earl of Harewood.  It was completed in 1765 at which time he began to design the architectural embellishments of seventeen rooms, making this Adam’s largest commission.  It is interesting to note that Adam did not make any furniture designs for the house, the entire commission going to Thomas Chippendale, whose furniture more than compliments the internal architecture and space (Eileen Harris, The Genius of Robert Adam, New Haven and London, 2001, p. 137)  This furniture commission began in the 1770s and lasted until the death of the Earl in 1795.

  • USAUSA
  • 2013-10-24
Hammer price
Show price
Advert

Withdrawal

An italian pietre dure and marble plaque depicting st. john the evangelist withi

Seated with the book of the gospel and holding a quill, his robe is green jadeite and red Candia jasper, the flesh in Volterra chalcedony, the hair in Sicilian jasper and Egyptian cailloux, to the right of the figure is the emblem of the saint, the eagle, the plumage in petrified wood, within an  oval frame of black Belgian marble applied with low relief scrolling foliage in chalcedony within a rectangular gilt-bronze frame with moulded corners, the reverse with a support in oak Text by Anna Maria Giusti This plaque shows the figure of St John Evangelist made of pietre dure a commesso within an oval surround of black Belgian marble edged in gilt bronze.  The saint is shown seated with the book of the gospel and holding a quill, his robe is green jadeite and his cloak is of red Candia jasper;  different shades of Volterra chalcedony have been used to depict the flesh tones and the hair is made up of Sicilian jasper and Egyptian cailloux. To the right of the figure is the emblem of the saint, the eagle whose plumage is rendered in petrified wood.  The oval frame of black Belgian marble has applied stylised bas relief foliage, with chalcedony from the Grigioni in Switzerland, cut into it.  The whole thing is set in a fluted square frame, of gilt-bronze with moulded corners. Documents from the archives enable us to identify this work exactly as ‘il quadro con San Giovanni’ – ‘the picture with St John’, made in the Grand Ducal workshops in Florence which in February 1749 was finished and about to be sent to Vienna. On 28 February 1749 Louis Siries, who, the previous year had become director of the Galleria dei Lavori, the workshops where the pietre dure works were made, was reimbursed 8 zecchini ‘per dorare l’ornamento del quadro di San Giovanni di pietre dure’ – ‘for the gilding of the ornament for the Saint John of pietre dure’ (ASF, GM Appendice 11, c.95). The reimbursement to Siries features in another register, which, as well as the gilding of the ‘cornice del quadro di San Giovanni fatto di pietre dure’ – ‘the frame of the picture of St John done in pietre dure’ - also notes the expense ‘per l’adorno di bronzo di una cassetta di pietre dure di bassorilievo, tanto l’una che l’ altro per mandarsi a Vienna a Sua Maestà Imperiale’ – ‘for the bronze ornament for a box with pietre dure bas reliefs, both of which are to be sent to Vienna to his Imperial Majesty’. (ASF, GM Appendice 71, c.620). On the same day, 28 February, Filippo Panzani, who had been working in the Galleria as ‘argentiere’ – silversmith for at least three years (ASF. G. M. 1404, c.27 v.), presents a bill for several pieces of work, amongst which is the item, ‘per avere saldato ad argento di mio n.4 cantonate centinate d’un legamento di bronzo gettato per un quadro d’un San Giovanni di pietre dure/ Per aver saldato n.12 vite attorno alla parte di dietro di detto ornamento ad argento di mio/ Per aver fato n.10 saldature di perni e tasselli al suddetto ornamento/ per aver saldato l’ovato che sta dentro al suddetto quadro, limato, pulito e rinettato per dorare/ Per avere dorato tutti i suddetti bronzi e annessovi tutti i bronzi che devono servire per l’adorno d’una cassetta di pietre dure’ – ‘for having soldered with silver supplied by myself, four curved corners of a bronze mount cast for a picture of Saint John of pietre dure/for having soldered 12 screws for the back of this ornament using silver supplied by myself/ for having made 10 soldered pins and dowels for the above mentioned object/ for having soldered the oval which is set into this picture, filed down, cleaned and prepared for gilding/ for having gilded all these above-mentioned bronze pieces and fixed onto it all the bronze pieces that make up the mounts of a pietre dure box’. (ASF, G. M. Appendice 71, c.628). The picture of Saint John was therefore made for Francis Stephen of Lorraine, Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1737 and as the consort of Maria Teresa, Holy Roman Emperor from 1745.  Although he only made one visit to Florence and the territories of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, in 1739, he knew and appreciated the craftsmanship that the Medici had made so well known and prized all over Europe.  From the early years of his reign he commissioned many things which were then sent on to him in Vienna. Amongst his commissions was this picture of Saint John, a masterful rendering in pietre dure of a beautiful painting by Carlo Dolci (1616 –1686), which was in the Riccardi Collection in Florence until 1810 and subsequently went abroad, to a series of different collections reproduced here in fig. 3. (Until a few years ago it belonged to Unicef, having been bequeathed to the organisation by the collector Gustav Rau).  It is one of a series of the Four Evangelists executed by Dolci for his confessor in the 1640s, and the many copies made of the series shows how successful it was. In the same way Dolci’s original painting (which is larger and octagonal in shape)  also inspired this commesso picture which was made at a time when the painting was in the Riccardi Collection.  In the same period the head of the Grand Ducal Guardaroba, who was also responsible for the Galleria dei Lavori, was marchese Vincenzo Riccardi.  The only differences between the painting and the commesso picture, apart from the shape, are that in the commesso picture the halo is omitted and the evangelist is shown wearing rather curious ‘half gloves’. It might seem unusual that the model for a commesso object made in the Galleria should have been an earlier painting, even though it was a prestigious one, given that, traditionally, the Grand Ducal mosaicists took advantage of original models by artists working in the Medici entourage, which were more readily suited to their purpose.  But in the period immediately after the Medici dynasty died out there was a crisis, if not of quality, then at least in the actual operation of the workshops. Eleven master craftsmen moved to Naples to the court of Charles Bourbon:  the number of ordinary craftsmen dropped and those involved in cutting stone for flat commesso objects numbered, in 1747, three masters, three under masters and three apprentices. There were the same number of ‘maestri di bassorilievo’ – masters of bas relief, to which were added one bronze worker, one silversmith and two cabinet makers.  There was no painter, or at least no creative artist to prepare original models, a role played for so long by Foggini, director of the Galleria until his death in 1725. In order to respond promptly to the expectations of the new Grand Duke for pictures (as well as the boxes, tables and trays produced in the early period of  Lorraine rule), the Galleria looked to pictures which were already available and at the same time appealed to its illustrious patron.  In this way, in 1738, just a year after the accession of Francis Stephen of Lorraine, a picture showing Soldiers on a Coastline, which is today in the Kunsthistorisches Museum, was sent to Vienna. This commesso scene is taken from a 17th century painting by the Dutch artist Jacob de Heusch, which at that time was in Florence, but is today in the Akademie der Bildenden Kunste in Vienna, having been given by Francis Stephen himself (see Die Kunst des Steinschnitts, exhibition catalogue edited by R. Diestelberger, Vienna 2003, cat. no.211. pp. 338-339). This picture of Saint John, inspired by the Dolci painting was made about ten years later.  It is a very successful interpretation, executed with unequalled technical mastery and a practised chromatic knowledge, a figurative subject produced after years of turning out ‘grottesche e fiorami’ – ‘grotesques and floral designs’ which had long been in fashion in the Galleria.  Complementing the picture the relief foliage should be seen as one of the last examples of the work of the ‘maestri di bassorilievo’ which until 1752 included Gaetano Torricelli, son of the celebrated virtuoso gem cutter, Giuseppe Antonio.  After this, the new director Louis Siries concentrated almost exclusively on the production of two dimensional mosaics, taking on the painter Giuseppe Zocchi in 1749 as a regular collaborator in the making and preparation of original models for pietre dure pictures which were sent to the Emperor at regular intervals over the following years. The later presence of the Saint John in the collection of the Counts Zichy is probably explained by it having been presented as an imperial gift to a member of this noble Magyar family, which enjoyed close ties with the Austro-Hungarian dynasty.  Translated by Emma Bassett We thank Anna Maria Massinelli for initially assisting in the dating of this work. Francis Stephen of Lorraine: Francis I (Francis Stephen 8th December 1708–18th August 1765) was Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke of Tuscany, though his wife effectively executed the real powers of those positions. With his wife, Maria Theresa, he was the founder of the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty. From 1728 until 1737, he was Duke of Lorraine. In 1737, Lorraine was governed by France under the terms following the War of the Polish Succession 1733-38. Francis and the House of Lorraine received the Grand Duchy of Tuscany in 1737.  After taking the throne of the Holy Roman Empire, the return of the ancestral duchy of Lorraine went nominally to his brother Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine until succession resulted in Lorraine's annexation to France in 1766.  He fathered sixteen children including the deposed and later executed Marie-Antoinette, Queen of France. Károly II. József Ferenc Xaver Zichy (1753-1826): He was born on March 4th, 1753 in Bratislava, and was the third child of Istvàn and his wife, Duchess Cecilia Stubenberg. He was one of the most important politicians in his family and was married to Maria Antonia Gräfin Khevenhüller-Metsch (1759-1809). Károly II had several important functions in the Hungarian State. At the age of twenty-two, he became Illyrian ‘Hofkommissionsrat’ at the Viennese Court Chamber. Emperor Joseph II (1780-1790) recognized that he was highly gifted and this is why he appointed him as ‘Obergespan’ of the Comitates Békés in 1782 as well as of Györ in 1783. In 1787, Károly became president of the Hungarian Court Chamber and only one year later, he became Chief Justice Minister, the most important representative of the Hungarian jurisdiction. Károly, who was the most skilful speaker and politician, was a key advisor to Emperor Joseph II. Furthermore, he acted as a mediator between Emperor Joseph II and the Hungarians. In his book ‘Die Ungarn’, Paul Lendvai describes on page 206, Károly’s prominent role regarding the return of the Saint Stephan Crown from the Viennese Treasury, which was obtained by Joseph II. Franz I, King of Hungary, honoured Károly II for his accomplishments with the Saint Stephan Order in 1792. In the following years, he became Chief Secretary and Knight of the Golden Fleece (1808), Minister of War (1809) and Minister of the Interior 1813-14. On September 28th, 1826 Károly II József Ferenc Xaver died of a stroke in Vienna.

  • GBRUnited Kingdom
  • 2014-07-09
Hammer price
Show price

An italian gilt-bronze mounted pietre dure and ebony clock, galleria

The ebony veneered case of tabernacle shape surmounted by a broken pediment, flanked by scrolls above white chalcedony composite columns on plinths, each in turn surmounted by a square amethyst, the base mouldings and capitals in chased fire-gilded bronze, the pediment, pedestal and sides decorated with gilt-bronze framed pietre dure panels with flowers and intertwined scrolled foliage, the clock face centred by a bird pecking at a piece of fruit amongst scrolled foliage, above a rectangular frieze of pietre dure concealing a drawer with another smaller drawer in the upper section of the base, the round brass movement and verge escapement with a conoid held in place by animal gut, a striking mechanism which rings six times with a bell and the original key, the movement signed Francesco Papillion In Fiorenza   Very little is known about this clockmaker who registered as a master of his craft in 1705 in Florence and whose signature also appears on an alarm clock in the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, a double-case pocket watch in the Ilbert Collection and a handsome night clock in a Milanese collection. Given the very high quality of the case of this clock it is justifiable to suppose that Papillion also worked for the Galleria dei Lavori. We know of other similar clocks to this one made in the Galleria dei Lavori under Cosimo III.  There is a clock in the Gilbert Collection (now in the Victoria and Albert Museum in London, which I was able to identify when it was in Los Angeles).  Made of ebony, gilt-bronze and pietre dure, it was originally surmounted by an alabaster niche which is now missing, and was probably made to the design of Foggini, who was personally responsible for a number of bronze ornaments.  The case would have been made by the cabinet maker Leonardo van der Vinne.  It belonged to Anna Maria Luisa, daughter of Cosimo III who became Electress Palatine.  Another clock, in an ebony case with pietre dure decoration, surmounted by three gilt-bronze figures by Foggini (to whom is also attributed the design of the object), is in the Bulgari collection in Rome.  A third clock, which is in the collection of the Residenz in Munich, is the work of Foggini and the cabinet maker Adamo Suster and is datable to  about 1705.  It has amethyst columns and a medallion above containing a portrait in pietre dure of the Electress Anna Maria Luisa. It is worth noting that the year before Papillion registered as a clockmaker in Florence, work was being carried out on a clock in the Galleria dei Lavori.  I have found some records of payments for it:  in March 1704, 'A Leonardo van der Vinne Ebanista... spese Ebani e Granatiglie... che deve servire per l'Oriuolo ch va facendo', ['To Leonardo van der Vinne, Cabinet maker...  expenditure on ebony and granatiglia... which is needed for the clock that is being made'].  On 14 and 15 April and on 5 May 1704 further payments to the same craftsman are recorded.  On 25 June 1704 comes another order of payment, 'A Leonardo van der Vinne... a spese di Ebanisteria per tanti sono... e Alessandro Patriarchi intagliatore per l'aver intagliato N.2 mensole d'Ebano che vanno all'orologio di Granatiglia' , ['To Leonardo van der Vinne... expenses for a number of items of cabinet making ... and Alessandro Patriarchi, carver for having carved two supports of ebony which are for the clock made of Granatiglia'], and finally, on 24 November 1704 an order of payment to, 'Leonardo van der Vinne a spese di Ebanisteria... pagate al Patriarchi Intagliatore per due Scartocci d'Ebano per l'Orologio che va facendo' , ['Leonardo van der Vinne for expenses for cabinet making... paid to Patriarchi, carver, for two cartouches of Ebony for the Clock that is being made'].  All the documents are in the Archivio di Stato, Florence, Guardaroba 1123, cc. 5r, 6r, 6v and 8v). It is difficult to say whether these documents could refer to the clock illustrated here, given that they do not describe it fully and that they mention another wood, granatiglia, besides ebony.  However granatiglia is in fact a lighter-coloured variety of ebony or palisander and with the passing of time and build-up of dust the two woods eventually acquire the same colour.  One thing, however, is certain:  this clock was definitely made in the grand-ducal workshops at the beginning of the eighteenth century, probably at the same time as Papillion registered as a master of clockmaking in Florence in 1705.  Leonardo van der Vinne was probably responsible for making the case, as he was usually involved with this sort of task.  The pietre dure work, would have been entrusted, as we know, to a number of craftsmen who were paid by the week.  The bronze ornament was Foggini's responsibility.  Finally it should be noted that there is only one other clock of such quality from the grand-ducal Galleria dei Lavori which retains its original movement, now in the Getty Museum.

  • GBRUnited Kingdom
  • 2012-07-04
Hammer price
Show price
Advert

An empire sèvres porcelain-mounted ormolu, patinated-bronze and mahogany

Based on a very similar example, the present table can be attributed to a collaboration between the celebrated ébéniste Adam Weisweiler and the renowned fondeur-ciseleur Pierre-Philippe Thomire, possibly under the direction of the marchand-mercier Martin Eloi Lignereux. The present table relates strikingly to a table firmly attributed to Weisweiler and Thomire which was supplied in 1802 by Lignereux to the Palace of Saint-Cloud and is now in the Victoria & Albert Museum in London, see Jean-Pierre Samoyault, Mobilier Français Consulat et Empire, Paris, 2009, p. 117, fig. 199. It is very likely that Weisweiler, famous for his Sèvres inset Louis XVI pieces, made the centre table to the order of and after designs by Lignereux who would also have supplied the porcelain plaque. The attribution to Thomire is not only based on the quality of the ormolu but also the fact that he was one of the main suppliers to Weisweiler, he was closely associated with Lignereux and collaborated with both of them. Identical lions with the distinctive inwards scrolling, acanthus leaf issuing tails can be found on candelabra and clocks by Thomire, see Hans Ottomeyer and Peter Pröschel, Vergoldete Bronzen, Vol. I, Munich, 1986, p. 330, fig. 5.2.7 and p. 342, fig. 5.5.2 and 5.5.4. Based on a design for a related guéridon by Charles Percier, Jacob-Desmalter executed a center table in circa 1805 for the  apartments in the Elysée Palace of Prince and Princess Murat. It is now in the Grand Trianon at Versailles, see Denise Ledoux-Lebard, Le Grand Trianon , Meubles et Objets d'Art, Vol. I, Paris, 1975, pp. 147-148. Another version of this model was supplied to Malmaison, see Gérad Hubert and Nicole Hubert, Musée national des Château de Malmaison et de Bois Préau, Paris, 1986, p. 46. The porcelain top of this table could have remained unused as part of the stock of marchand-mercier Lignereux, or it might have come from another, earlier piece of furniture. The top oak underframe shows signs of having been originally attached to a different support which would suggest that the top was in use on a Louis XVI table before being converted to its present use, circa 1805. The porcelain plaque was painted around 1770-1775, in the style formerly attributed to Mlle Xhrouet but now largely reattributed to Jacques-François Micaud. The style is typical of his informal arrangement with many of the flowers turning outwards. The treatment of heavy strong-colored flowers to the right of the composition, the blueish hue in the leaves, the use of the trailing convolvulus below the basket and the actual choice of flowers are all features common to his work. Other examples may be seen on a circular plaque inset in a black lacquer commode by Weisweiler at Windsor Castle, a plaque inset in a secrétaire by Carlin at Waddesdon Manor, and another on a secrétaire from the Kress Collection at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. This table was once part of the Collection of the Money-Coutts family, heirs to the ancient barony of Latymer and Coutts & Co, the exclusive private bank. The Latymer barony dated from 1431, when it was created for Sir George Nevill, a son of the first Earl of Westmorland. However, the fourth baron died without a male heir in 1577, and the title was in abeyance until 1912, when the Committee of Privileges of the House of Lords ruled, in the absence of other claimants, that it had passed through one of the fourth baron's daughters to Francis Burdett Thomas Money-Coutts (1852-1923). Although destined for the directors' room of Coutts & Co he was too interested in the arts to be a serious banker and became an important patron of the arts.

  • USAUSA
  • 2013-04-24
Hammer price
Show price

A fine restauration sèvres porcelain, ormolu and patinated bronze

This porcelain, patinated bronze and ormolu guéridon is recorded in the Sèvres sales inventory as a guéridon de 55 cm groupe de fruit coloriés au milieu pied blanc monture en bronze at a retail price of 2,400 Francs. Also, as the richly decorated porcelain top is signed by the painter Moïse Jacobber (1786-1863), a free-lance painter at Sèvres who also executed a similarly painted porcelain table service for the duchesse de Berry in 1826 (a plate from which was sold Sotheby's Paris, March 29, 2007, lot 122), and is dated 1821, it can be further identified as item No. 8 in the catalogue of the 1821-1822 New Year’s exhibition at the Louvre, where it was described as composé et peint par Jacobber, and shown among the most recent and impressive achievements of the Sèvres manufactory. The table was shown together with the so-called “Henri IV guéridon;” the most celebrated one of the porcelain tables executed as part of the series manufactured in 1821. A series of nine small round tables is known to have been produced at Sèvres in 1821. This was a new initiative on the part of Alexandre Bongniart, Administrator of the Sèvres Manufactory. These he described as guéridons intended as petit tables rondes à ouvrage ou à thé, pour cabinet ou petit salon. These tables, all of which fitted certain preset criteria, measured between 50 cm and 60 cm in diameter and were decorated with a wide array of themes. The most famous of these works is the abovementioned “Henri IV guéridon,” which was designed and painted by Jean-Charles Develly and is now in the Museé National de Céramique, Sévres, see Derek E. Ostergard ed., The Sévres Porcelain Manufactory: Alexandre Brongniart and the Triumph of Art and Industry, 1800-1847, New Haven and London, 1997, pp. 238-239. The base of this table is executed in patinated bronze, similarly to that of the present lot. Interestingly, the “Henri IV guéridon” rests on a circular platform, just like another small round table from the same series sold Christie’s London, June 10, 2002, lot 70. The small holes to the underside of the feet of our table suggest that it too, had a similar platform. Of the known models from the 1821 series, the Christie’s guéridon is the most similar to the present lot: it has an identical ormolu-mounted patinated bronze base terminating in paw feet and a similarly somber ormolu rim framing the porcelain top. The white porcelain shaft of the Christie’s table also has similarly restrained gilt decoration as the present table. However, whereas that table’s top is decorated with rather simple geometric motifs imitating pietra dura inlay, ours is realistically painted and shows a wide variety of fruits and leaves accented by insects. As mentioned above, the present guéridon retailed for 2,400 Francs, whereas the one sold at Christie’s for only 900 Francs, suggesting that this table was considered a true masterwork at a time that would merit such astronomical price. Porcelain and porcelain-mounted furniture In France the fashion of including smaller pieces of porcelain into furniture started in the mid-eighteenth century, but did not become widely popular until the reign of Louis XVI when trendsetting marchands-merciers such as Dominique Daguerre and Simon Philippe Poirier commissioned pieces of furniture incorporating porcelain plaques from some of the most celebrated ébénistes of the period such as Martin Carlin. This trend survived the changes in taste brought about during the revolution and, as technological innovations at Sèvres made it possible to produce larger-than-ever works, wealthy patrons of the Consulat, Empire and the Bourbon restoration commissioned extravagant pieces of furniture incorporating large pieces of porcelain or, in some rare cases, made entirely out of porcelain. Such awe-inspiring pieces include a reading stand from 1825-27, see Marie-Noëlle Pinot de Villechenon, Sèvres: Porcelain from the Sèvres Museum, 1740 to the Present Day, London, 1997, p. 71, and a table commissioned by Napoleon I in 1811 and later gifted by Charles X to Francis I, King of the Two Sicilies and eventually sold Sotheby’s New York, November 9, 2007, lot 73 ($6,201,000). Porcelain guéridons and tables were first produced at Sèvres during the first decade of the nineteenth century by the architect Théodore Brongniart, the father of Alexandre Brongniart. To produce table tops formed of a single piece of porcelain was a considerable technical accomplishment and unlike tables which had been produced at Sèvres earlier, they were designed to rest upon a single support. Porcelain and bronze guéridons of the present type were introduced by Alexandre Brongniart mainly to make use of large plaques that needed to be refired or decorated overall to cover any imperfections: Pour objet principal d’employer des plaques qui ont de repasser ou qui trop imparfaites pour de belles peintures. Par consequent les fonds au grand feu doivent être souvent employés. Producing these tables also helped the factory to utilize the different architectural elements, such as columns and balusters, that had already been fired but never used for other projects. For an Empire porcelain table with bronze feet depicting Apollo in his chariot comparable to this lot and now in the Château de Fontainebleau, see Bernard Chevallier, Les Sèvres de Fontainebleau: Pièces Entrées de 1804 à 1904, Paris, 1996, pp. 69-70. The Sèvres Porcelain Manufactory The Sèvres Porcelain Manufactory was founded in Vincennes in 1740 and later reestablished in larger quarters at Sèvres in 1756.  It became the pre-eminent factory in Europe during the second half of the 18th century but fell onto very hard times during the years of the French Revolution. Since it was no longer a royal enterprise, the factory had lost much of its clientèle and generally its financial condition echoed the economic distress of the country as a whole. The appointment in 1800 of Alexandre Brongniart (1770-1847) as the administrator of the factory set in motion a marked change in the success of the factory which he continued to run until his death in 1847.  With the gilder's mark D.Y. for Charles-Christian-Marie Durosey and the painter's mark F.B. for François-Hubert Barbin

  • USAUSA
  • 2013-02-01
Hammer price
Show price

Four reliefs with personifications of the Four Winds

These four extraordinary figures in high relief are personifications the four mythological winds Aeolus, Boreas, Zephyrus, and Eurus. They are new additions to the oeuvre of the highly original Venetian Baroque sculptor Giovanni Bonazza, and are here attributed to the artist for the first time together with two reliefs of river gods in the Musée du Louvre and a design for such a figure in the Biblioteca Ambrosiana in Milan. Ultimately these four reliefs derive from Alessandro Vittoria’s stucco ceiling panels and lunettes with gods and nudes that decorate the interior of the Palazzo Thiene and Palazzo Bissari-Arnaldi in Vicenza, as well as his ovals in the Scala d’Oro in the Venetian Palazzo Ducale. Each of these figures is characterised by bulging volumes and contorted shapes much like the present personifications of the Winds. However, Vittoria’s 16th-century examples have been imbued here with a creative freedom that is entirely original and highly idiosyncratic. The present reliefs do not merely represent the Winds, they appear to have captured and contained their force, a typically Baroque stylistic device. The foremost sculptor of such Baroque inventions in Venice is Giovanni Bonazza. The Winds’ exaggerated anatomy, the design of the physiognomy, and grotesque features are closely approached by the profile reliefs of the tyrants Attila the Hun and Ezzelino III da Romano by him in the Musei Civici in Padua. A further stylistic, typological, and physiognomical parallel can be found in Bonazza’s San Girolamo penitente from the Franciscan convent in Rovigno. The sculptor represents the saint as a powerful bearded old man lying on the ground. Zephyrus is the only subject that Bonazza seems to have treated more often. A version of the Zephyrus in the round is located in the garden of Villa Vendramin Cappello in Noventa Padovana which has a similar appearance to the relief that represents this Wind. In addition to the present set of the Winds, two further reliefs in the Musée du Louvre can now be attributed to Bonazza. The Louvre reliefs represent two Rivers contained within marble ovals much like the present figures. They were probably coupled with two further lost reliefs to form a group representing the canonical Four Rivers. The Louvre reliefs were previously attributed to the French sculptor Guillaume Boichot (1735 - 1814). They were part of the collection of the French painter Gabriel-François Doyen (1726 - 1806) who moved to Russia shortly after the French Revolution. In the process his collection was confiscated by the revolutionary government and deposited in the École des Beaux-Arts. There the Rivers were used by the students as models, which is why molds, bronze casts, and versions in grès émaillé exist.  The research into the present reliefs has yielded one further discovery. A drawn design for one of the Rivers in the Louvre is kept in the Biblioteca Ambrosiana in Milan. This drawing was previously attributed to the painter Giovanni Angelo Borroni (1684 - 1772) but must be a preparatory drawing for the Louvre relief. Representations of the Winds are rare and usually confined to architecture. In Vincenzo Cartari’s influential 1556 treatise Imagini colla sposizione degli dei degli antichi they are described as having to be represented with their wings and hair tousled. Cartari also mentions that the Winds should be differentiated from each other by illustrating their individual effects. Here Bonazza gave each Wind its own set of attributes, occasionally subtly hidden in the background. The foremost figure, Aeolus, reclines majestically on soft clouds and is identifiable by his crown, scepter, and key. Aeolus is technically not a Wind but their ruler. His key unlocks the cave in which he keeps the Winds captive. The dauntless bearded man that turns his agitated face towards the spectator, huddled and clenching his fist, is Boreas, the frosty and impetuous wind that blows from the North. Zephyrus has butterfly wings and a youthful appearance. He personifies the westerly wind that carries warm and sweet air in spring. Its fertile nature is underlined by the flowers and fruits which Zephyrus holds between his fingers. He puffs his cheeks and reclines on light clouds with a radiant sun and a hint of a rainbow in the background. Lastly, there is Eurus, the wind blowing from the South-East, shown by Bonazza as a contemplative old man. This Wind tends to bring rain which is illustrated on the far right as well as the figure’s long wet hair. RELATED LITERATURE V. Cartari, Le Imagini de i dei de gli antichi, Venice, 1580, pp. 260-261; R. Tomić, ‘Dva djela iz ostavstine Gaspara Kraljeta u ckrvi sv. Antuna Opata u Velom Losinju’, Umjetnost na Istocnoj obali Jadrana u kontekstu eropske tradicije, Rijeka, 1993, p. 24, fig. 4; D. Banzato et al., Dal medioevo a Canova. Sculture dei Musei Civici di Padova dal Trecento all’Ottocento, Venice, 2000, pp. 163-166, nos. 90-91 Sotheby's would like to thank Maichol Clemente and Simone Guerriero for their assistance in cataloguing this lot and for sharing their discoveries with us.

  • GBRUnited Kingdom
  • 2015-07-09
Hammer price
Show price

Bust of Emperor Charles V

With a label inscribed: POMPEO LEONI - CARLOS V. IMP. This impressive portrait of the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, derives from what must have been a highly influential model by court artist Leone Leoni or his son Pompeo. Plaster casts of the bust are kept in the Chateau de Chambord and the Royal Museums of Fine Arts Brussels, a bronze version is at the Castle of Gaasbeek, and two 19th-century reductions of the model appeared on the Paris art market in recent years. This grand version in bronze comes from the descendants of the Counts von Galen, a Westphalian noble family, and was possibly handed down to them through relations from the House of Metternich. From the moment he inherited the hotly contested Burgundian territories in 1506, the image of Charles V was disseminated, promoted, and heroised to grow allegiance to the ruler throughout Europe. The portrait of the young Charles V painted by Bernard van Orley in Brussels around 1515, for example, was copied widely, including in miniature in England, in enamelled gold in Spain, and in boxwood and Solnhofen stone in the South of Germany (now Musée du Louvre, inv. no. 2031). In 1516 Charles V became King of Spain, Naples, Sardinia, and Sicily, and upon the death of his grandfather Maximilian I in 1519, he succeeded him as the head of the Habsburg Monarchy, making him the Holy Roman Emperor. In this capacity he was the figurehead of countless political and armed conflicts with Francis I of France, the Protestants, the Ottoman Sultan Suleiman I, and in South East Asian and American colonies. To gain favour with the people and to protect valuable alliances, Charles V turned to art once more to portray himself as a peaceful and honourable Christian ruler as well as a formidable warrior. In his efforts to sustain this image, Charles V employed the foremost artists from across his empire. The Lombard sculptors Leone and Pompeo Leoni were enlisted in 1549 and created some of the most iconic images of the emperor. They relied on the same heroic likeness in most of their models. Both their full-length effigies, such as the extraordinary bronze Charles V and the Fury and the marble Charles V in the Prado (inv. nos. E00267 and E00273), and several of their busts show the emperor bearing armour and the Order of the Golden Fleece. The moustache is generally extended through the beard. Most recognisable, however, is the pronounced Habsburg jaw and the open mouth. Together with a thoughtful gaze, the jaw lends these portraits the charisma for which the emperor was known but which was seldom attained by other artists. In addition, the prominent chin in combination with the sharply rendered thick and wavy hair imbues the sculptures with a regal dynamism. All these traits are captured in a similar manner in the present bust. Particularly close comparisons are later works which are associated with Pompeo Leoni, such as a classically draped marble bust in the Prado started by Leone and probably finished by Pompeo, and a bronze bust with a laurel wreath attributed to Pompeo in the monastery of Cuacos de Yuste, where the emperor retired following his abdication. As mentioned above, several versions of the present busts exist. Soly (op.cit.) illustrates a second bronze version attributed to Leone Leoni in the Castle of Gaasbeek, near Brussels. Gaasbeek has an extraordinary collection of portraits of Charles V, including a marble profile portrait by Leone Leoni, an alabaster half-length relief of Charles V and Isabella of Portugal by Jean Mone, and an early cast after Leone and Pompeo Leoni’s grand bronze bust in the Prado (inv. no. E00271). The latter object in particular suggests that moulds of the Leoni's busts in Spain were taken to create reproductions that were given to loyal subjects or, as the rough finishing of both our bust and that at Gaasbeek indicate, placed upon architecture in either Spain or the Burgundian Netherlands. It is unclear exactly when these images of the Emperor entered the Castle of Gaasbeek. The Count of Egmont, a close friend of Charles V, inhabited the Castle in the 16th century whilst later owners, including the Scockaert de Tirimont family and the Marquise Arconati Visconti, were avid collectors. The plaster bust that is preserved in the Royal Museums of Fine Arts in Brussels (inv. no. 9953) is almost certainly a cast of the Gaasbeek bronze and therefore provides a terminus ante quem in the middle of the 19th century. The second plaster is a much less successfully modelled version of the present bust. It is in the Chateau de Chambord, where Francis I hosted Charles V in order to show off his power, and is therefore not likely to have arrived there before the 19th century. A further indication that the model was held in some esteem in the 19th century are two reductions of 23 centimetres which were sold at Sotheby’s Paris on 14 April 2010 and at Piasa in the following year. RELATED LITERATURE M. Roelants, The castle of Gaasbeek, 1978; H. Vandormael, L. de Keyser, and J. Vandenbreeden, “Kasteel van Gaasbeek”, Openbaar Kunstbezit in Vlaanderen 32, no. 1, 1994, p. 30; H. Soly (ed.), Charles V 1500-1558 and his time, Antwerp, 1999, p. 105; Kaiser Karl V (1500-1558). Macht und Ohnmacht Europas, exh. cat. Kunst- und Ausstellungshalle der Bundsrepublik Deutschland, Bonn, 2000, pp. 321-323, nos. 356-357

  • GBRUnited Kingdom
  • 2015-07-09
Hammer price
Show price

A monumental Berlin KPM ormolu-mounted porcelain krater form vase with a view of Potsdam.

The panorama which stretches over the entirety of the vase shows Potsdam seen from Babelsberg. Our gaze is led northwards from the Havel towards Glienicke to the Marmorpalais at Heiligensee on towards the centre of Potsdam. The base, handles and rim are richly decorated with gilt biscuit porcelain acanthus leaves. The compact body of the piece bears a finely painted portrait of a nymph, vines and flowers in grisaille on a gilt ground.Berlin KPM's later heyday was due not least to the great demand on the part of Frederick William III and his family for representative gifts, which were presented at various occasions to allied monarchs, honoured dignitaries and relatives. This auction includes several such pieces, displaying the artistic and technical prowess with which KPM sought to meet the demands of their royal patrons in the early 19th century. The pieces produced in the 1810s and 1820s tend to be decorated with views of places and buildings illustrating the relationship between the royal family and the recipients of the gifts. Since 1836, panoramas were often used in place of the more prosaic architectural décor, especially in the most sumptuous pieces. Through the careful choice of viewpoints and perspective, the KPM painters were able to depict highly detailed city views and entire landscapes on their vases and plates. The choice of vase was of great importance in the successful depiction of such panoramas, and the Munich form proved to be one of the most well-suited designs. However, the cylindrical body and low-set handles of the Riesen vase was to become the ideal ground for the panorama painters. The design is based on a pair of vases from the Sèvres manufactory which were presented to Frederick William III as a gift by Louis-Philippe of France. When Duke Ferdinand Philppe of Orléans (1810 - 1842) was engaged to Princess Helena of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1814 - 1858), the daughter of Frederick Ludwig of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Frederick William III carefully chose this three-piece set of vases inspired by Sévres as a gift for them on the occasion.The great artistry of the Berlin panorama painters is perfectly demonstrated in this work. The stark elegance of the base and rosettes contrasts with and accentuates the fascinating detail of the landscape painting. The viewer's gaze is drawn into the depth of the landscape, as it invites one to circle around the depiction and lose oneself in the beauty of the Havel landscape. The view reaches across the Havel northwards over Glienicke, the Heiligensee with the Marmorpalais and towards the centre of Potsdam.

  • DEUGermany
  • 2015-05-02
Hammer price
Show price

Withdrawal

François linke 1855 - 1946 a unique and magnificent gilt-bronze mounted

The headboard centered by a reclining female figure allegorical of dusk and flanked by Cupids above a Rococo cartouche, centered to its bottom by a flaming urn, the footboard centered by a raising cupid holding a torch and allegorical of dawn, one side with a cupid at rest holding a bow and quiver, the other with a putto harvesting grapes, signed F. Linke to the headboard This bed is one of the masterpieces by François Linke in the style and spirit of the Paris Exposition Universelle of 1900. Linke’s price list for the bed, index number 706, is characteristically short and to the point: Grand lit Louis XV assorti violette et marqueterie 1m 65 x 2m 10 interieur. Measure exterieur 1. 95 x 2.25, hauteur dossier 2.10. Linke adds in pencil that the bed, wardrobe and night table as an ensemble should retail at 380,000 French francs ‘lit, armoire table de chevet 3.8000.000’. Intriguingly Linke also remarks that the bedroom furniture was made to go en-suite with the three-fold screen number 705 that was seemingly intended for the Gold Medal winning 1900 exhibition on which Linke gambled his reputation and then slender fortune. He writes ‘assortie avec 705 Paravant Louis XV Exposition’,noting that the screen should retail at 115,000 French francs but could be reduced to a minimum of 80,000 French francs.  An extended version of this suite in which the present lot was included, was delivered to the Patiños with a side chair, two night tables and a baldaquin for the bed. The canopy (baldaquin) had matching tapestry with the present lot centered by the initials ‘ARP” for Albina Rodriguez Patiño, wife of Simon Iturri Patiño, the Bolivian tin magnate who set up his own bank, the Banco Mercantil in 1906 with a capital equivalent to over $1,500,000. As well as exploiting his hard won tin reserves he opened up Bolivian rail and river transportation and was a supporter of many charities. After establishing his headquarters in Hamburg in Germany, Patiño purchased a house, number 32 on the fashionable Paris’s Avenue Foch and ordered some two hundred and forty items of furniture and decorations from Linke in 1913, listed in the Linke accounts as Commande 1860. Subsequent Patiño orders are dated 1916, 1918 and 1919 and through to the 1920s and ‘30s. Verbal corroboration between Simon Patiño’s daughter-in-law, Christina de Bourbon and Christopher Payne indicates that the first floor of the Avenue Foch house, was furnished by Linke in a way that confirms Linke’s order book. There is an implication that Linke’s important client Antonio Devoto, who ordered the same bedroom suite as Patiño but with a marquetry bedhead instead of the woven silk of the present lot as seen in the invoice, dated 27th September 1913, (see Payne, plate 278) had to wait much longer for Linke to complete the work and that the main part of the suite was diverted to Patiño, despite having been ordered earlier by Devoto. The amount of changes on the Devoto invoice suggest that it was only a rough copy or draft and not the one presented to the client. The total of 295,000 French francs has been crossed out and marked ‘a reporter’ – meaning ‘to be revisited’, no doubt due to pressure from the client. The bed is more fully described than the price list description, confirming that the woods are kingwood (bois de violette) and the untranslatable ‘satiné’.  Linke also underlines the quality of the bronzes on the present lot by adding in the invoice that the bronzes are chased and gilded. There is no record of the silk ordered for the present lot which is thought to be a unique commission.  The Devoto bedroom was in stock according to an estimate, dated 27th September 1913 with the marquetry version of the bed listed as70,000 francs, the armoire number 716 at 85,000, a ‘commode assortie’, 35,000 and a chaise longue at 13,500 francs, numbers 2567 and 2568 respectively. The total sale price of these four items was 203,500 francs against a cost price estimated at 86,667 francs 50 and it is imagined that the special weaving of the silk for the present lot would have been more expensive than the ‘standard’ marquetry.  The sub contracted outside sculptor, Derivry, is recorded to have carved unspecified parts of the bedroom suite but it may be presumed that these were models for the innovative three-dimensional bronze mounts after designs and original plans by Linke’s principle sculptor Léon Messagé who had died in 1901 but whose legacy underlined Linke’s success. The innovative style of this suite and more specifically the present lot, are clearly inspired by Messagé with his genius for merging traditional Louis XV rococo themes with a contemporary feel of the “belle époque’ . Apart from the sculptural, three-dimensional figures on the head and footboard, typical of Messagé, the central apron on the footboard with its asymmetric foliage and cascading water come directly from the work and designs of Messagé for Linke’s mentor, Joseph-Emmanuel Zwiener. Patiño and Devoto were two of Linke’s most important clients in the second decade of the twentieth century. Both men were wealthy entrepreneurs who, having made their fortune wanted to buy the best quality luxury furniture from the best maker, François Linke. Footnote courtesy of Christopher Payne

  • USAUSA
  • 2014-06-06
Hammer price
Show price

Withdrawal

A german neoclassical ormolu-mounted mahogany rolltop desk david roentgenneuwied

With the ivorine plaque engraved D. Sherratt & Co, 61 Bridge Street Row, Chester. During the last decade of the eighteenth century, rolltop desks were among David Roentgen’s most celebrated and sought-after creations. Throughout the 1780s, he executed a number of such pieces for some of the most discerning and noble clients, such as Catherine the Great, King Louis XVI, the Landgravine Philippine von Hessen-Kassel and William Cavendish, fifth Duke of Devonshire, among others. The present desk shares a number of similarities with not only the bureaux executed for the abovementioned clients, but also with other pieces found in different private and public collection around the world. With its undivided rolltop, this desk is closely related to a piece delivered for the Duke of Devonshire and now at Chatsworth House, see Wolfram Koppe, Extravagant Inventions: The Princely Furniture of the Roentgens, New York, 2012, p. 167, and one sold Christie’s London, June 10, 2004, lot 116. For the rolltop or slant front of most of his desks David Roentgen used a large continuous sheet of mahogany veneer so the wood’s natural figuring could be fully appreciated. Roentgen then often divided this area with variously cast ormolu bands into smaller planes. Examples of desks decorated this way include the aforementioned bureau for Elisabeth the Great and the Hessen-Kassel family, a desk in the Bestand Museum, Weimar and one formerly in the Chateau de Malmaison and now in collection of the US State Department, see ibid. pp. 182-185 and 154-157, Andreas Büttner and Ursula Weber-Woelk, David Roentgen: Möbelkunst und Marketing im 18. Jahrhundert, Regensburg, 2009, p. 73 and Hans Huth, Roentgen Furniture, London and New York, 1974, fig. 64, respectively. The removable legs of the present desk are mounted with ormolu mileraies panels, which many consider hallmarks of Roentgen’s fully developed oeuvre, to which this lot can be assigned. This type of ormolu mount is found on numerous works by Roentgen from clocks to caskets and was eventually adapted by other furniture makers. A small, but very specific decorative component on this desk that can be found on other bureaux by Roentgen is the small voluted arch in the kneehole. This design element appears on two rolltop desks at the Ermitage, Saint Petersburg and another one delivered for King Friedrich Wilhelm II of Prussia, see Josef Maria Greber, Abraham und David Roentgen: Möbel für Europa, Vol. II, Starnberg, 1980, figs. 663, 667, and Achim Stiegel, Präzision und Hingabe: Möbelkunst von Abraham und David Roentgen, Berlin, 2007, p. 99, respectively. In overall form, decoration and design concept, these two desks are the most similar to the lot offered here. Interestingly, the piece once belonging to the King of Prussia and the Chatsworth House desk are both inset with small brass roundels above the brass-inlaid fluted pilasters just like this lot. With the two large square drawers flanking a long narrow drawer the front of the lower section of the desk offered here is arranged identically as the King’s bureau, one of the abovementioned Ermitage desks and one delivered for the French court in 1784 and now at Versailles, see Greber, op. cit., fig. 660. The large square drawers open sideways to reveal smaller drawers fitted with Chippendale-style drawer pulls identical to those found on a rolltop desk by David Roentgen, now in the Metropolitan Museum, see Koppe, op. cit., p. 125. Besides these small drawer pulls, the large handles incorporated into the ormolu band of the pull-out writing surface are again a Roentgen trademark and can be seen on a number of the aforementioned bureaux. The interior of this lot is fitted with a central compartment flanked by stepped platform-shaped drawers, which can also be found in the Christie’s examples as well as the desks of King Wilhelm II, the one at Versailles, the Chatsworth House desk and one in the collection of Ruth Ann Stanton, New York, see ibid., p. 192. The ormolu mounts on the desk offered here are of excellent quality and could have come from the workshop of the famed Parisian bronzier François Rémond, who supplied mounts to Roentgen’s workshop after they met during Roentgen’s visit to Paris in 1774.

  • USAUSA
  • 2013-10-23
Hammer price
Show price

Withdrawal

Tondo with the coat of arms of the Bartolini-Salimbeni family and

Recent research has shown that this hitherto unrecorded tondo records the alliance between two of the most important families of the Italian Renaissance: the Bartolini-Salimbeni and the De’ Medici. Equally it is a record of the long-standing patronage of the Della Robbia family workshop by the two families and a seminal example of the radiant glazed terracottas that are found adorning Tuscan buildings to this day. Over the course of more than a century, the Della Robbia family enjoyed the sustained patronage of both the church and a great number of noble families, including the Medici, the Pazzi, and the Tornabuoni. The family produced sculpture to adorn churches, the facades of Florentine palazzi, and for private devotion, as they had done since the founding of the studio by the pioneering Luca della Robbia (1399/1400- 1482). Luca’s nephew Andrea (1435-1525) took over the running of the workshop and expanded its production in the High Renaissance. The most distinguished of his sons, Giovanni della Robbia (1469-1529), continued this legacy with much success, introducing several innovations of his own to the workshop production. The technique of using polychrome enamelled terracotta to create high relief sculptures like the present one, was conceived in imitation of ancient marbles. The popularity of these glazed terracottas, which could be produced relatively quickly and in sections for easy transport and assembly, kept the family enormously active from the early 15th century to and throughout the lifetime of the youngest of Andrea’s sons, Girolamo (1488-1566). Luca della Robbia first appropriated the form of a fluted medallion surrounded by a wreath of leaves on the underside his famous marble Cantoria in the 1430s. According to Gentilini (1998, op.cit., p. 64), the earliest use of such a heraldic tondo in glazed terracotta is the Stemma della Mercanzia on the Orsanmichele, Florence, from circa 1440-1445. The Pazzi chapel, the decoration of which is arguably the workshop’s most celebrated accomplishment, contains several simple foliate garlands framing medallions in glazed terracotta including the Pazzi family stemma in the celebrated dome. The demand for these eye-catching coats of arms proved insatiable. Andrea, and later Giovanni, therefore, continued to model such works for Tuscany’s foremost noble families. The design of the present lot, with the copious wreath combined with classical egg-and-dart inner border and concave shell-form central section from which the arms project, was employed by several members of the Della Robbia dynasty. However, details such as the snail and lizard within the wreath are characteristic of tondi from the workshop of Giovanni della Robbia in particular. See for example, a tondo with the Medici stemma made in 1525 for the Ospedale del Ceppo, Pistoia (Marquand, 1919, op. cit., p. 269, no. 348) and another centred by the Tuscan shield with the rampant lion of Giannozzo di Piero Gianfigliazzi, and with a shell-form background, made in Giovanni's workshop in 1514 illustrated by Domestici (op. cit., cat. no. 39, p. 296). Giovanni’s early works in collaboration with his father Andrea include a series of medallions in the Loggia of San Paolo made around 1493–1495. The first documented work for which he was individually contracted was the grand lavabo in Santa Maria Novella of 1497. His magnum opus is the frieze for the facade of the Ospedale del Ceppo at Pistoia which occupied him from 1425-1429. In the spandrels under the frieze one again encounters the garlanded coats of arms invented by his grand uncle. Marquand and subsequent writers have suggested that Girolamo, Giovanni’s brother and collaborator, may have been the author of the abundant wreath of leaves, pinecones, fruit, lizards and frogs surrounding this bust. By 1518, however, Girolamo was receiving a royal stipend from King François I of France and worked for him at the Palace of Fontainebleau. After the death of the King in 1547, Girolamo returned to Florence. Twelve years later he resumed his work in France, working at the Château de Madrid and again at Fontainebleau. Subsequently he was employed to help execute the monuments of François II and Catherine de Médicis at Saint-Denis. The Bartolini-Salimbeni family was at the heart of Florentine prosperity as the most important family of merchants in the city. It is said that the poppy emblem was added to the family heraldry because the ancestors of the Renaissance family members fortified wine with opium to trick foreign merchants into trading with them. Marquand recorded two further coats of arms associated with the family in his 1919 survey of the Della Robbia heraldry. A shield with the rampant lion in a wreath accompanied by a plaque inscribed with the name Bartolomeo di Lionardo Bartolini and dated 1494, from the workshop of Andrea, is in Castiglione Fiorentina (p. 116, fig. 98). In the Bargello we find the great Bartolini-Salimbeni and Medici stemma formerly on the Casa Bartolini-Salimbeni in Dicomano, which combines all of both families’ emblems and was recently attributed to Luca il Giovane (p. 279, fig. 201; Gentilini, 1998, op.cit., p. 65). According to Marquand the latter commemorates the wedding of Bartolommeo di Andrea de' Medici and Alessandra di Lionardo Bartolini-Salimbeni and the present may therefore have been made for a similar occasion. Another possibility is that it was part of the decoration of the Palazzo Bartolini-Salimbeni on the Via Tornabuoni in Florence, which was built between 1519 and 1523. RELATED LITERATURE A. Marquand, Robbia heraldry, Princeton, 1919, p. 223, no. 284 and p. 269, no. 348; A. Marquand, Giovanni Della Robbia, Princeton, 1920, pp. 159-160, no. 162, fig. 98; F. Domestici, I Della Robbia a Pistoia, Florence, 1995, pl. CXVIII, pp. 255-296, no. 39; G. Gentilini (ed.), I Della Robbia e l’arte nuova della scultura invertriata, exh. cat. Basilica di Sant’ Alessandro, Fiesole, 1998, pp. 64-65; G. Gentilini, I Della Robbia. Il dialogo tra le Arti nel Rinascimento, exh. cat. Museo Statale d’Arte Medievale e Moderna, Arezzo, 2009

  • GBRUnited Kingdom
  • 2014-07-09
Hammer price
Show price

* Note that the price doesn’t correlate with today’s value, but only relates to the actual end price at the time of the purchase.

Porcelain & Pottery

Items made of porcelain, earthenware, stoneware and faience from every country are found under the category Porcelain & Pottery. Plates, cups, antique vases, tableware, china figurines and Chinese serving dishes are just some of the items that can be found up for auction under this heading.

Advert