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PORTRAIT DE MANET PAR LUI-MÊME, EN BUSTE (MANET À LA PALETTE)
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Édouard Manet, PORTRAIT DE MANET PAR LUI-MÊME, EN BUSTE (MANET À LA PALETTE)\nOil on canvas\n85.5 by 71cm.\n33 5/8 by 28in.\nPainted circa 1878-79.
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A master portraitist and key figure in French intellectual circles in the late nineteenth century, Manet executed a number of outstanding portraits of his contemporaries: his fellow artists Claude Monet, Eva Gonzalès and Berthe Morisot, writers Emile Zola and Stéphane Mallarmé, politicians Georges Clemenceau, Antonin Proust and Henri de Rochefort, art collectors and patrons Jean-Baptiste Faure and Ernest Hoschedé, author and critic Théodore Duret, his wife Suzanne Manet and many others. However, Manet only painted two self-portraits, both executed around the same time: the present work, and Portrait de Manet par lui-même (Manet à la calotte), now in the Bridgestone Museum of Art, Tokyo (fig. 1).

A quintessential image of a painter, Portrait de Manet par lui-même (Manet à la palette) shows the half-length figure of the artist, adorned with his painter's attributes – a palette and brushes. Executed during the mature period of Manet's career, and at the high point of the Impressionist movement, this work is widely regarded as one of the great self-portraits in the canon of Western art. Art historians have often compared the present painting with the way Velázquez depicted himself in front of a large easel in the celebrated masterpiece Las Meninas (fig. 2). Charles S. Moffett has commented: 'Evidently, Manet saw himself as the modern equivalent of the elegant, worldly master of the seventeenth-century Spanish court' (C. S. Moffett in Manet (exhibition catalogue), op. cit., 1983, p. 405). Whilst the traditional subject matter and the figure's pose in this work pay homage to the great self-portraits by artists such as Rembrandt, Titian and Goya, its modern, avant-garde style paved the way for many artists of the following generations, including Van Gogh, Cézanne, Picasso (fig. 3), Freud, Bacon (fig. 4) and many others.

There is no more revelatory or intimate subject for an artist than a self-portrait. Portrait de Manet par lui-même (Manet à la palette) is a complex composition, a visualisation of the painter's introspection and self-analysis at the height of his career, as well as a conscious construction of a self-image with which the artist presents himself to his contemporaries, and indeed to future generations. In this work, Manet depicts himself as a gentleman, wearing a jacket, a cravat and a hat, rather than as a struggling artist covered in paint. 'Self-Portrait with a Palette is as much a painting of a subject from modern life as it is a self-portrait. Indeed, this image of a stylish gentleman painter could serve as an illustration of the dandy as defined by Baudelaire in "Le Peintre de la vie moderne." Despite Manet's unabashed admiration for values rooted in the artificial and the superficial, this picture is a celebration of character and distinctiveness or, in Baudelaire's words, "of what is finest in human pride, of that compelling need, ... only too rare today, for combating and destroying triviality' (ibid., p. 405).

Throughout its history, the magnificence of Portrait de Manet par lui-même (Manet à la palette) has been acknowledged by numerous art historians, and has been included in many seminal exhibitions since 1910. The importance of this work is attested by the number of illustrious collectors who owned it: in the early years of the twentieth century, the painting was owned by Auguste Pellerin (1852-1929), one of the most voracious and discriminating collectors of his time. Alongside works by Renoir, Pissarro, Sisley, Degas, Monet and Cézanne, Pellerin owned no fewer than fifty paintings and pastels by Manet. Among them were La Serveuse de Bocks of 1879, now in the collection of Musée d'Orsay, and the iconic Le Bar aux Folies-Bergères of 1881-82, now in the Courtauld Institute Galleries, London. The present work was later owned by other eminent collectors, including Jakob Goldschmidt and John Loeb. Its rich history, its importance as a self-portrait and its unique blend of the traditional and the modern set this painting apart as a true masterpiece of Impressionist art.

Fig. 1, Edouard Manet, photograph

Fig. 2, Edouard Manet, Portrait de Manet par lui-même (Manet à la calotte), circa 1878, oil on canvas, Bridgestone Museum of Art, Ishibashi Foundation, Tokyo

Fig. 3, Diego Velázquez, Las Meniñas, 1656-57, oil on canvas, Museo del Prado, Madrid

Fig. 4, Pablo Picasso, Self-Portrait with Palette, 1906, oil on canvas, Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia

Fig. 5, Francis Bacon, Self-Portrait, 1971, oil on canvas, Musée National d'Art Moderne, Paris

Fig. 6, Sale of the Jakob Goldschmidt collection at Sotheby's, London, 15th October 1958, with the present work on the easel. Photograph by Izis/Parismatch/Scoop, Camera Press London

medium

Oil on canvas

creator

Édouard Manet

exhibited

Berlin, Galerie Paul Cassirer, Edouard Manet (aus der Sammlung Pellerin), 1910

Paris, Bernheim-Jeune, Manet, trente-cinq tableaux de la Collection Pellerin, 1910, no. 16, illustrated on the cover of the catalogue

Munich, Moderne Galerie, E. Manet (aus der Sammlung Pellerin), 1910, no. 23

Paris, Musée de l'Orangerie, Manet, 1932, no. 65b

New York, Wildenstein & Co., Inc., Edouard Manet, 1937, no. 25, illustrated in colour as the catalogue frontispiece

New York, Wildenstein & Co., Inc., Great Portraits from Impressionism to Modernism, 1938, no. 21, illustrated in the catalogue

San Francisco, Palace of Fine Arts, Golden Gate International Exposition, Masterworks of Five Centuries, 1939, no. 151, illustrated in the catalogue

New York, Schaeffer Galleries, Self Portraits, Baroque to Impressionism, 1940, no. 31

Detroit, Institute of Fine Arts, The Age of Impressionism and Objective Realism, 1940, no. 26

New York, M. Knoedler & Co., Inc., Allied Art for Allied Aid, 1940 (not in catalogue)

New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Summer Loan Exhibition, Paintings from Private Collections, 1959, no. 63

New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Summer Loan Exhibition, Paintings from Private Collections, 1960, no. 63

New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Summer Loan Exhibition, Paintings from Private Collections, 1961, no. 48

New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Summer Loan Exhibition, Paintings from Private Collections, 1962, no. 41

New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Summer Loan Exhibition, Paintings from Private Collections, 1963, no. 34

New York, M. Knoedler & Co., Inc., Impressionist Treasures from Private Collections in New York, 1966, no. 16, illustrated in the catalogue

New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Summer Loan Exhibition, Paintings, Drawings and Sculpture from Private Collections, 1966, no. 86

Philadelphia, Museum of Art, Edouard Manet, 1966, no. 144, illustrated in the catalogue

New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York Collects: Paintings, Watercolors and Sculpture from Private Collections, 1968, no. 92

New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Portrait of the Artist, 1972, no. 23

New York, Wildenstein & Co., Inc., Faces from the World of Impressionism and Post-Impressionism, 1972, no. 40, illustrated in the catalogue

Washington, D.C., National Gallery of Art, Manet and Modern Paris, 1982-83, no. 1, illustrated in colour in the catalogue

Paris, Galeries Nationales du Grand Palais & New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Manet, 1832-1883, 1983, no. 164, illustrated in colour in the catalogue (titled Autoportrait à la palette)

New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Manet/Velázquez: The French Taste for Spanish Painting, 2003, no. 160, illustrated in colour in the catalogue

dimensions

85.5 by 71cm. 33 5/8 by 28in.

literature

Henri Dumont, Manet, Berlin, n.d., illustrated p. 16

Florence Fels, E. Manet, Paris, n.d., illustrated

Etienne Moreau-Nélaton, Catalogue manuscrit de l'œuvre de Manet, Paris, n.d., no. 236

Théodore Duret, Histoire d'Edouard Manet et son œuvre, Paris, 1902, no. 245, p. 256, illustrated in colour opposite p. 146

Curt Glaser, 'Von Ausstellungen und Sammlungen', in Die Kunst, May 1910, p. 378

Julius Meier-Greafe, Edouard Manet, Munich, 1912, p. 253, illustrated pl. 149

Antonin Proust, Edouard Manet, Souvenirs, Paris, 1913, illustrated pl. 17

Emil Waldmann, Edouard Manet, Berlin, 1923, p. 99, no. 43, illustrated

Adolphe Tabarant, 'Une histoire inconnue du 'Polichinelle', in Bulletin de la Vie Artistique, Paris, 15th September 1923, p. 369, illustrated

Etienne Moreau-Nélaton, Manet raconté par lui-même, Paris, 1926, vol. II, illustrated fig. 235

Paul Jamot, ''La Parisienne' de Manet: Nina et Cabaner se rencontrent au Louvre', in L'Amour de l'Art, Paris, March 1927, illustrated p. 84

Anthony Bertram, World's Masters, Manet, Paris, 1931, illustrated pl. 1

Adolphe Tabarant, Manet, Histoire catalographique, Paris, 1931, p. 349, no. 299

L'Amour de l'Art, Paris, May, 1932, p. 147, illustrated fig. 3

Paul Jamot, Georges Wildenstein & Marie-Louise Bataille, Manet, Paris, 1932, vol. I, no. 294, catalogued pp. 156-157; illustrated, vol. II, no. 294, fig. 157, illustrated pl. 70

Paul Colin, Edouard Manet, Paris, 1932, p. 180, illustrated pl. LXXI

Alfred M. Frankfurter, 'Manet, First American Retrospective', in Art News, New York, 20th March 1937, p. 24, illustrated in colour on the cover

Paul Colin, Manet, Paris, 1937, illustrated on the frontispiece

Ambroise Vollard, Souvenirs d'un Marchand de Tableaux, Paris, 1937, p. 74

Robert Rey, Manet, London & Toronto, 1938, illustrated p. 34

Robert Goldwater, 'Artists painted by themselves: Self-portraits from Baroque to Impressionism', in Art News, New York, 30th March 1940, illustrated p. 13

John S. Newberry, 'The Age of Impressionism and Realism: Detroit's Anniversary Exhibit', in Art News, New York, 4th May 1940, p. 3, no 26, illustrated in colour on the cover

Gotthard Jedlicka, Edouard Manet, Zurich, 1941, illustrated opposite p. 126

Adolphe Tabarant, Manet et ses œuvres, Paris, 1947, p. 355, no. 320, illustrated p. 613

Benno Reifenberg, Manet, Bern, 1947, illustrated pl. 32

Maurice Bex, Manet, Paris, 1948, illustrated p. 88

Antonio Bento, Manet no Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, 1949, no. 15, illustrated

Samson Lane Faison, Jr., 'Manet's Portrait of Zola', in Magazine of Art, May 1949, p. 167, illustrated fig. 10

Jean-Louis Vaudoyer, Edouard Manet, Paris, 1955, illustrated pl. 4

New York Times, 25th September 1955, p. 92

Georges Bataille, Manet, Lausanne, 1955, p. 23, illustrated in colour

John Richardson, Edouard Manet, Paintings and Drawings, London, 1958, p. 129, no. 71, illustrated

'The Goldschmidt pictures at auction', in Art News, New York, September 1958, p. 60

Life Magazine, 10th November 1958, illustrated

'Seven Impressionist Paintings', in The Connoisseur, December 1958, p. 194, no. 2, illustrated

Heinrich Schwarz, 'Two Unknown Portraits of Manet', in Gazette des Beaux-Arts, April 1959, p. 248, illustrated fig. 1

Leroy C. Breunig, Chroniques d'Art, 1902-1918, par Guillaume Apollinaire, Paris, 1960, p. 113

John Rewald, The History of Impressionism, New York, 1961, illustrated p. 404

Pierre Courthion, Edouard Manet, New York, 1962, illustrated in colour on the frontispiece

Henri Perruchot, Edouard Manet, New York, 1962, illustrated p. 77

Theodore Rousseau, 'Loans Accepted', in Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, October 1964, p. 68

George Mauner, Manet, Peintre-Philosophe: A Study of the Painter's Themes, Pennsylvania, 1965, pp. 149-151, illustrated fig. 94

Theodore Rousseau, 'Loans Accepted', in Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, October 1965, p. 58

George Heard Hamilton, 'Is Manet still Modern?', in Art News Annual, 1966, p. 104, illustrated in colour

John Richardson, Manet, London, 1967, fig. 9, illustrated

Kurt Liebmann, Edouard Manet, Dresden, 1968, pp. 97 & 182, illustrated pl. 1

Pierre Schneider, The World of Manet, New York, 1968, p. 12, illustrated in colour

Denis Rouart & Sandra Orienti, Tout l'œuvre peint de Manet, Paris, 1970, p. 110, no. 274, illustrated in colour pl. XLVIII

René Huyghe, L'Impressionnisme, Paris, 1971, illustrated in colour p. 109

Germain Bazin, Edouard Manet, Milan, 1972, illustrated p. 2

George Mauner, Manet, a study of the painter's themes, London, 1975, p. 150, illustrated fig. 94

Denis Rouart & Daniel Wildenstein, Edouard Manet, Catalogue raisonné, Lausanne & Paris, 1975, vol. I, no. 276, illustrated p. 223

Peter Gay, Art and Act: On Causes in History – Manet, Gropius, Mondrian, New York, 1976, p. 35, illustrated fig. 17

Tadao Ogura, Manet, Tokyo, 1978, illustrated pl. 8

H. Shinoda, H. Tsuruta & N. Shimada, Manet, Tokyo, 1978, illustrated p. 95

Maria & Godfrey Blunden, Impressionists and Impressionism, Geneva, 1980, illustrated in colour p. 46

Claudia Lyn Cahan, Manet, New York, 1980, p. 15, illustrated in colour pl. XLIX

The Frances and John L. Loeb Collection, London, 1982, no. 13, illustrated in colour

John Richardson, Manet, London, 1982, p. 26, illustrated fig. 10

Pierre Daix, La Vie de peintre d'Edouard Manet, Ligugé, 1983, fig. 41, illustrated

Kahtleen Adler, Manet, Oxford, 1986, detail illustrated on the frontispiece

Eric Darragon, Manet, Ligugé, 1989, illustrated in colour on the cover

Françoise Cachin, Manet, Paris, 1990, illustrated in colour pp. 25 & 133; illustrated in colour on the back cover

Eric Darragon, Manet, Paris 1991, fig. 209, illustrated in colour p. 299

Vivien Perutz, Edouard Manet, London, 1993, illustrated in colour pl. 1

James H. Rubin, Manet's Silence and the Poetics of Bouquets, Cambridge, 1994, p. 9, illustrated fig. 1

Françoise Cachin, Manet, Painter of Modern Life, London, 1995, illustrated in colour p. 109

Beth Archer Brombert, Edouard Manet: Rebel in a Frock Coat, Boston, 1996, illustrated in colour on the cover

Barbara Ehrlich White, Impressionists Side by Side, New York, 1996, illustrated in colour p. 11

Impression: Painting Quickly in France, 1860-1890 (exhibition catalogue), The National Gallery, London, 2000-01, no. 32, illustrated in colour p. 69

Nancy Locke, Manet and the Family Romance, Princeton & Oxford, 2001, fig. 74, illustrated p. 144

Carol Armstrong, Manet Manette, New Haven & London, 2002, no. 169, illustrated in colour p. 313

Manet en el Prado (exhibition catalogue), Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid, 2003-04, illustrated in colour p. 56

This work has been requested for the exhibition Manet, Inventor of Modernity, to be held at Musée d'Orsay, Paris from March to May 2011.

This work has also been requested for the exhibition Manet: from Portrait to Tableau, to be held at the Toledo Museum of Art, Ohio and Royal Academy of Arts, London from October 2012 to April 2013.

provenance

Suzanne Manet, Paris (the artist's wife; by descent from the artist)

Hermann Paechter, Berlin (acquired from the above in 1899)

Auguste Pellerin, Paris (acquired by 1902)

Marquise de Ganay, Paris (acquired from the above circa 1910)

Jakob Goldschmidt, Berlin & New York (acquired by 1931. Sold: Sotheby's, London, 15th October 1958, lot 1)

John & Frances L. Loeb, New York (purchased at the above sale. Sold: Christie's, New York, 12th May 1997, lot 107)

Stephen A. Wynn, Las Vegas

Acquired from the above by the present owner


*Note: The price is not recalculated to the current value. It refers to the actual final price at the time the item was sold.

*Note: The price is not recalculated to the current value. It refers to the actual final price at the time the item was sold.


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