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Le Rond rouge
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Le Rond rouge
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Le Rond rouge

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NY, US
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About the item

Painted in Paris in 1939, Le Rond rouge, conveys the viewer into the realm of pure aesthetic expression. The exquisite arrangement of the composition's forms and colors represents Kandinskys final phase of development at a time when the Surrealists dominated the cultural topography and the city of Paris was a hotbed of creative rivalry. Kandinsky had a long association with Paris, which he had first visited in 1889 when he began to exhibit at various galleries. He spent his formative years in 1906-07 on the outskirts in Sèvres with Gabriele Münter. Throughout the next two decades, Kandinsky kept in contact with the Parisian milieu, and through the mediations of Henri Le Fauconnier, he became acquainted with Matisse, Delaunay and Picasso. As he became internationally recognized and venerated as a key figure of Der Blaue Reiter and the Bauhaus, exhibitions dedicated to his work were held in Paris in 1929 and 1930. In the last days of 1933, Kandinsky decided to emigrate from an increasingly hostile Germany to France. He and his wife settled at 135 Boulevard de la Seine in Neuilly-sur-Seine, a wealthy inner suburb of Paris, where he was to live out the remainder of his life.The title of this picture evokes the powerful forces at play during the era in which it was created. Kandinsky painted this work in 1939, following his relocation from Nazi-era Germany to pre-war France. After the National Socialists closed the Bauhaus in Dessau in 1932, the avant-garde art school briefly re-established itself as a private institution in Berlin by the end of the summer. Many of its left-leaning faculty could not escape the censure of the Gestapo, and the school ultimately shut down by 1933. Kandinskys Russian origins in particular made him a target of the Gestapos suspicion, and he feared for the future. If the Nazis or Communists should come, Kandinsky confided to his friend Galka Scheyer, Ill be immediately without a job. For the time being, he struggled to support himself amidst the dwindling German economy and looked towards the United States and France for potential purchasers of his pictures. Scheyer proved to be a great resource, introducing him to the man who would become on of his greatest patrons, Solomon R. Guggenheim. Over the next decade, Guggenheim lent his financial support to Kandinsky, enabling him to leave Germany for France.\nKandinskys years in Paris resulted in canvases that are considered the ultimate crescendo of his artistic ideology. While his development was strongly influenced in the 1920s by his Bauhaus colleague Paul Klee, whose watercolors and oil paintings of these years demonstrate similar artistic predilections, Kandinskys production in Paris took a different direction. The stimuli of Surrealist Paris inspired dramatic manifestations of color and form, most notably the shift from primary colors to pastels and the incorporation of sand into his canvases. Sharp textural and color contrasts characterize these paintings, many of which evidence a distinctive musicality. Graphic elements such as arcs, sharp horizontal lines and punctuating circular marks are not unlike the elegant clefs, notes and bards of sheet music. Indeed, music was not far from Kandinskys mind when he painted his most inspired compositions. Color is the keyboard. The eye is the hammer. The soul is the piano, with its many strings," he famously wrote in Concerning the Spiritual in Art. The artist is the hand that purposefully sets the soul vibrating by means of this or that key (W. Kandinsky, Concerning the Spiritual in Art, 1911, reprinted in C. Harrison & P. Wood, Art in Theory, 1900-1990, Oxford, 1992, p. 94).\nAlthough Kandinsky was well aware of Surrealismhe had exhibited with the proto-surrealist Dada group in Zurich in 1916 and the Surrealists in Paris in 1933he was never a Surrealist. Their emphasis on automatic writing and the unconscious was from his concept of inner necessity. Rather he became interested, as had his friends Klee and Arp, in the idea of nature and natural growth. The new motifs that were incorporated into his paintings in 1934 were biological: images particularly related to zoology and embryology. In one of his first Paris works, Monde bleu, among the rectilinear planes various biological and larval forms can be identified. The sources for many of Kandinskys biological forms from this period can be found in the encyclopedia Die Kultur der Gegenwart, whose volumes were in the artists library and marked in many instances with references to specific illustrations which in turn can be found in specific canvases from the period. Kandinsky also clipped photographs from scientific articles on deep-sea life, such as algae, sea-polyps and plankton.\nThe use of color, shape and biological morphology are all at play in Paul Overys analysis of Le Rond rouge: One of the most intriguing works of this period is The Red Circle (1939) which is almost like a journey through the insides of ones own body. The dark pathways which link the red circle with the other colored elements are like alimentary tracts. Within these intestinal convulsions are built up brightly-colored structural forms like ladders or pylons. The dark areas are fringed with blue which is in turn fringed with a very pale blue aura, so that the positive and negative reversal effects of light and dark forms are used to draw us into the convolutions of the paintings; changes of scale from the little ladders of bright pastel colors to the more sonorous forms and colors of the major forms involved the spectator as in a densely crowded street-scene or a panoramic landscape (P. Overy, op. cit., pp. 176 & 185).\nDespite the artists increased incorporation of forms from the natural world, his imagery did not become a realistic interpretation of figuration. Rather The Paris imagery typically reflects an accommodation between the geometry of preceding years, writes Vivian Endicott Barnett, and a new vocabulary of organic forms. The triangles, circles and squares that were the basis of Kandinskys Bauhaus grammar do not completely disappear but are still alluded to in irregular, fantastic biomorphic shapes. They ultimately assume an independent pictorial life and endow the paintings and gouaches of Kandinskys late years with their unique character. Kandinskys new subject matter seems to exist in an almost natural realm of strange shapes and unusual colors, yet the distance he established between his art and the recognizable object has not diminished. Drawing upon imaginary sources that may be rooted in a fauna and flora found under the microscope, on the bottom of the sea and in other environments not ordinarily visible, Kandinsky presents tangible if fantastic fragments of reality. These fragments constitute an independent pictorial worlda world of the artists own making that is analogous but not identical to our own. Thus, at the end of his life Kandinsky synthesizes art and nature, idea and substance and formal sources from East and West on surfaces that have become the artists exemplary plane of consciousness and awareness (V. E. Barnett, Kandinsky at the Guggenheim, New York, 1983, pp. 16-17).\nSigned with the artist's monogram and dated 39 (lower left); signed with the artist's monogram, dated 1939 and numbered 66i (on the reverse)
US
NY, US
US

medium

Oil on canvas

creator

Kandinsky, Wassily

dimensions

35 by 45 3/4 in.

exhibition

Paris, Galerie René Drouin, 40 Peintures de Kandinsky, 1946, no. 19 Zurich, Kunsthaus, Georges Braque, Wassily Kandinsky, Pablo Picasso, 1946, no. 89 Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum & The Hague, Gemeente Museum, Kandinsky, 1947-48, no. 82 Paris, Galerie René Drouin, Kandinsky, Époque Parisienne 1934-1944, 1949, no. 34 Paris, Galerie Bernheim-Jeune, Rythmes et Couleurs, 1951, no. 14 Bern, Kunsthalle, Wassily Kandinsky, 1955, no. 93 Lausanne, Palais de Beaulieu, Chefs-d’oeuvre des Collections Suisses de Manet à Picasso, 1964, no. 323, illustrated in the catalogue Zurich, Galerie Maeght, Kandinsky, 1972, no. 58 Paris, Musée National d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, Hommage de Paris à Kandinsky, 1972, no. 43, illustrated in the catalogue Verona, Galleria d’Arte Moderna e Contemporanea, Palazzo Forti, Vasilij Kandinskij, 1993, no. 86, illustrated in color in the catalogue Jerusalem, The Israel Museum, Wassily Kandinsky: The Color of Abstraction, 1999, n.n., illustrated in color in the catalogue Saint-Paul-de-Vence, Fondation Maeght, Vassily Kandinsky. Rétrospective, 2001, no. 106, illustrated in color in the catalogue London, The Courtauld Gallery, 2002-18 (on loan)

literature

The artist’s handlist IV, no. 66I Will Grohmann, Wassily Kandinsky, Life and Work, London, 1959, no. 661, illustrated p. 313 Paul Overy, Kandinsky, The Language of the Eye, London, 1969, illustrated in color pl. 66 Hans K. Roethel & Jean K. Benjamin, Kandinsky, Catalogue Raisonné of the Oil-Paintings, vol. II, London, 1982, no. 1099, illustrated p. 992 Judi Freeman, The Fridart Collection: Nineteenth and Twentieth-Century Modern Masterworks, London, 1998, illustrated in color p. 132 The Courtauld Institute of Art, ed., The 20th Century at the Courtauld Institute Gallery, London, 2002, illustrated in color p. 58

provenance

Galerie René Drouin, Paris (acquired by 1946) Sidney Janis Gallery, New York Galerie Maeght, Paris Gustav Zumsteg, Zurich (acquired by 1946, probably from the above, and sold: Christie’s, London, April 6, 1976, lot E) Davlyn Gallery, New York (acquired by 1982) Acquired in 1996

signedDate

Signed with the artist's monogram and dated 39 (lower left); signed with the artist's monogram, dated 1939 and numbered 66i (on the reverse)

time_period

Painted in April 1939.

time_range_end

1939

artist_range_end

1944

time_range_start

1939

artist_range_start

1866

consignmentDesignation

The Triumph of Color: Important Works from a Private European Collection

creator_nationality_dates

1866 - 1944


*Note: The price is not recalculated to the current value. It refers to the actual final price at the time the item was sold.

*Note: The price is not recalculated to the current value. It refers to the actual final price at the time the item was sold.


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