Seals in the form of scarabs were created by the Egyptians several thousand years ago. However, the use of the sacred and divine beetle as a seal was not confined to the realm of the Nile, the tradition was used in other places including where the Persian Empire reached.

Carnelian with female head Intaglio 1st - 3rd century AD Estimate: $130 Carnelian with female head Intaglio 1st - 3rd century AD Estimate: $130

The cameos came about after engraved gems, originating in the 4th century in Hellenistic Egypt. Later they became very popular in ancient Rome, but never spread as much as their engraved relatives.

Carnelian with erotic scene Intaglio 1st - 2nd century AD Estimate: $260 Carnelian with erotic scene Intaglio 1st - 2nd century AD Estimate: $260

Only the names of the pharaohs in Ancient Egypt were allowed to be edged on to cartouches. The cartouche of this seal probably represents the throne name of Thutmose III, the sixth pharaoh of the 18th dynasty, which was the dynasty of such famous pharaohs including Tutankhamun and Akhenaten (and his wife, Nefertiti.)

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