Marcel Duchamp (1887-1968) France

Marcel Duchamp was a French painter and sculptor who studied at the Académie Julian in Paris. Duchamp’s early work has traces of Cubist influences and contemporary Futurist painting, which was inspired by photography. In the early twentieth century, Duchamp moved to the US, where he and Francis Picabia headed the Dada and Surrealist groups in New York. Duchamp liked painting androgynous figures, and in 1920 he invented a female alter ego: Rrose Sélavy, who regularly appears in his later works. Duchamp is thought to have had a strong influence on art after 1950, which is most clearly apparent in the work of pop artists, but also in minimalism, op art, and conceptual art.